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Air Conditioning Engineering

531 Pages · 2007 · 26.25 MB · English

  • Air Conditioning Engineering

    Air Conditioning Engineering This Page Intentionally Left Blank Air Conditioning


    Engineering


    Fifth Edition


    W.P. Jones


    MSc, CEng, FlnstE, FCIBSE, MASHRAE


    ~~IE I N E M A N N


    AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD


    PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann


    Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP


    30 Corporate Drive, Burlington, MA 01803


    First published in Great Britain 1967


    Second edition 1973


    Third edition 1985


    Fourth edition 1994


    Reprinted 1996


    Fifth edition 2001


    Reprinted 2003, 2005


    Copyright (cid:14)9 2001, W.P. Jones. All rights reserved


    The right of W.P. Jones to be identified as the author of this work has been


    asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988


    No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including


    photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether


    or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without


    the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the


    provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of


    a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road,


    London, England W1T 4LP. Applications for the copyright holder's written


    permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed


    to the publisher


    Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier's Science & Technology Rights


    Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333,


    e-mail: permissions@elsevier.co.uk. You may also complete your request on-line via


    the Elsevier homepage (http://www.elsevier.com), by selecting 'Customer Support'


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    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


    Jones, W.P. (William Pete0,


    Air conditioning engineering.- 5th ed.


    1. Air conditioning


    I. Title


    697.9'3


    Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data


    Jones, W.P. (William Peter),


    Air conditioning engineering/WP/Jones.- 5th ed.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 0 7506 5074 5


    1. Air conditioning. I. Title


    TH7687.J618


    697.9' 3-dc21 00-048640


    ISBN 0 7506 5074 5


    For information on all Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann


    publications visit our website at www.bh.com


    I Working together to grow


    libraries in developing countries


    Typeset at Replika Press Pvt. Ltd, Delhi 110 040, India


    Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall Preface to the Fifth Edition


    Although the fundamentals of the subject have not altered since the publication of the last


    edition there have been significant changes in the development and application of air


    conditioning. Among these are concerns about indoor air quality, revision of outside design


    data and the expression of cooling loads arising from solar radiation through glass by the


    CIBSE. The phasing-out of refrigerants that have been in use for many years (because of


    their greenhouse effect and the risks of ozone depletion) and the introduction of replacement


    refrigerants are far-reaching in their consequences and have been taken into account. The


    tables on the thermodynamic properties of refrigerant 22 have been deleted and new tables


    for refrigerants 134a and ammonia substituted. There have also been new developments in


    refrigeration compressors and other plant. Advances in automatic controls, culminating in


    the use of the Internet to permit integration of the control and operation of all building


    services worldwide, are very important. Revisions in expressing filtration efficiency, with


    an emphasis on particle s'ize, have meant radical changes in the expression of the standards


    used in the UK, Europe and the USA. The above developments have led to changes in the


    content, notably in chapters 4 (on comfort), 5 (on outside design conditions), 7 (on heat


    gains), 9 (for the refrigerants used), 12 (automatic controls) and 17 (on filtration standards).


    Two examples on heat gains in the southern hemisphere have been included.


    As with former editions, the good practice advocated by the Chartered Institution of


    Building Services Engineers has been followed, together with the recommendations of the


    American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, where


    appropriate. It is believed that practising engineers as well as students will find this book


    of value.


    W.E Jones This Page Intentionally Left Blank Preface to the First Edition


    Air conditioning (of which refrigeration is an inseparable part) has its origins in the


    fundamental work on thermodynamics which was done by Boyle, Carnot and others in the


    seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but air conditioning as a science applied to practical


    engineering owes much to the ideas and work of Carrier, in the United States of America,


    at the beginning of this century. An important stepping stone in the path of progress which


    has led to modern methods of air conditioning was the development of the psychrometric


    chart, first by Carrier in 1906 and then by Mollier in 1923, and by others since.


    The summer climate in North America has provided a stimulus in the evolution of air


    conditioning and refrigeration which has put that semi-continent in a leading position


    amongst the other countries in the world. Naturally enough, engineering enterprise in this


    direction has produced a considerable literature on air conditioning and allied subjects.


    The Guide and Data Book published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration


    and Air Conditioning has, through the years, been a foremost work of reference but, not


    least, the Guide to Current Practice of the Institution of Heating and Ventilation Engineers


    has become of increasing value, particularly of course in this country. Unfortunately,


    although there exists a wealth of technical literature in textbook form which is expressed


    in American terminology and is most useful for application to American conditions, there


    is an almost total absence of textbooks on air conditioning couched in terms of British


    practice. It is hoped that this book will make good the dificiency.


    The text has been written with the object of appealing to a dual readership, comprising


    both the student studying for the associate membership examinations of the Institution of


    Heating and Ventilating Engineers and the practising engineer, with perhaps a 75 per cent


    emphasis being laid upon the needs of the former. To this end, the presentation follows the


    sequence which has been adopted by the author during the last few years in lecturing to


    students at the Polytechnic of the South Bank. In particular, wherever a new idea or


    technique is introduced, it is illustrated immediately by means of a worked example, when


    this is possible. It is intended that the text should cover those parts of the syllabus for the


    corporate membership examination that are relevant to air conditioning.


    Inevitably some aspects of air conditioning have been omitted (the author particularly


    regrets the exclusion of a section on economics). Unfortunately, the need to keep the book


    within manageable bounds and the desire to avoid a really prohibitive price left no choice


    in the matter.


    W.E Jones Acknowledgements


    Originally this book was conceived as a joint work, in co-authorship with Mr. L.C. Bull.


    Unfortunately, owing to other commitments, he was compelled largely to forego his interest.


    However, Chapters 9 and 14 (on the fundamentals of vapour-compression and vapour-


    absorption refrigeration) are entirely his work. The author wishes to make this special


    acknowledgement to Mr. Bull for writing these chapters and also to thank him for his


    continued interest, advice and encouragement. Sadly, Mr. Bull is now deceased.


    The helpful comment of Mr. E. Woodcock is also appreciated.


    The author is also indebted to Mr. D.J. Newson for his contribution and comment.


    The author is additionally grateful to the following for giving their kind permission to


    reproduce copyright material which appears in the text.


    The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers for Figures 5.4 and 7.16, and


    for Tables 5.3, 5.4, 7.2, 7.7, 7.13, 7.14, 7.18, 16.1 and 16.2 from the CIBSE Guide.


    H.M. Stationery Office for equation (4.1) from War Memorandum No. 17, Environmental


    Warmth and its Measurement, by T. Bedford.


    Haden Young Ltd. for Tables 7.9 and 7.10.


    The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers for


    Tables 7.5, 9.1, 9.2 and for Figure 12.12.


    John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, for Figure 13.8 from Automatic Process Control by


    D.P. Eckman.


    McGraw-Hill Book Company for Table 7.12.


    American Air Filter Ltd. (Snyder General) for Table 9.6.


    Woods of Colchester Ltd. for Figure 15.23.


    W.B. Gosney and O. Fabris for Tables 9.3 and 9.4. Contents


    Preface to the Fifth Edition v


    Preface to the First Edition vii


    Acknowledgement viii


    1. The Need for Air Conditioning


    1.1 The meaning of air conditioning 1


    1.2 Comfort conditioning 1


    1.3 Industrial conditioning 2


    2. Fundamental Properties of Air and Water Vapour Mixtures 3


    2.1 The basis for rationalisation 3


    2.2 The composition of dry air 3


    2.3 Standards adopted 5


    2.4 Boyle's law 6


    2.5 Charles' law 7


    2.6 The general gas law 9


    2.7 Dalton's law of partial pressure 11


    2.8 Saturation vapour pressure 12


    2.9 The vapour pressure of steam in moist air 13


    2.10 Moisture content and humidity ratio 16


    2.11 Percentage saturation 18


    2.12 Relative humidity 19


    2.13 Dew point 20


    2.14 Specific volume 21


    2.15 Enthalpy: thermodynamic background 22


    2.16 Enthalpy in practice 23


    2.17 Wet-bulb temperature 25


    2.18 Temperature of adiabatic saturation 28


    2.19 Non-ideal behaviour 30


    2.20 The triple point 33


    3. The Psychrometry of Air Conditioning Processes 38


    3.1 The psychrometric chart 38


    3.2 Mixtures 39


    3.3 Sensible heating and cooling 42


    3.4 Dehumidification 44


    3.5 Humidification 48


    3.6 Water injection 52


    3.7 Steam injection 54


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