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Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes

537 Pages · 2010 · 5.95 MB · English

  • Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes

    About Island Press


    Island Press is the only nonprofit organization in the United States whose principal


    purpose is the publication of books on environmental issues and natural resource man-


    agement. We provide solutions-oriented information to professionals, public officials,


    business and community leaders, and concerned citizens who are shaping responses to


    environmental problems.


    In 2004, Island Press celebrates its twentieth anniversary as the leading provider of


    timely and practical books that take a multidisciplinary approach to critical environ-


    mental concerns. Our growing list of titles reflects our commitment to bringing the


    best of an expanding body of literature to the environmental community throughout


    North America and the world.


    Support for Island Press is provided by the Agua Fund, Brainerd Foundation,


    Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, Educational


    Foundation of America, The Ford Foundation, The George Gund Foundation, The


    William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Henry Luce Foundation, The John D. and


    Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, The Cur-


    tis and Edith Munson Foundation, National Environmental Trust, National Fish and


    Wildlife Foundation, The New-Land Foundation, Oak Foundation, The Overbrook


    Foundation, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, The Pew Charitable Trusts,


    The Rockefeller Foundation, The Winslow Foundation, and other generous donors.


    The opinions expressed in this book are those of the author(s) and do not neces-


    sarily reflect the views of these foundations. Agroforestry and


    Biodiversity Conservation


    in Tropical Landscapes Agroforestry and


    Biodiversity Conservation


    in Tropical Landscapes


    EDITED BY


    Götz Schroth, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca,


    Celia A. Harvey, Claude Gascon,


    Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, and


    Anne-Marie N. Izac


    Washington • Covelo • London Copyright © 2004 Island Press


    All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of


    this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from


    the publisher: Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC


    20009.


    ISLAND PRESS is a trademark of The Center for Resource Economics.


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    (CIP Data to come)


    British Cataloguing-in-Publication Data available.


    Book design by Brighid Willson


    Printed on recycled, acid-free paper


    Manufactured in the United States of America


    09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Contents


    Preface xi


    Introduction: The Role of Agroforestry in Biodiversity Conservation


    in Tropical Landscapes 1


    Götz Schroth, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Celia A. Harvey,


    Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Claude Gascon, and Anne-Marie N. Izac


    Part I: Conservation Biology and Landscape Ecology


    in the Tropics: A Framework for Agroforestry


    Applications 13


    Chapter 1: Biodiversity Conservation in Deforested and


    Fragmented Tropical Landscapes: An Overview 15


    Claude Gascon, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Wes Sechrest,


    Kaycie A. Billmark, and James Sanderson


    Chapter 2: Ecological Effects of Habitat Fragmentation in the


    Tropics 33


    William F. Laurance and Heraldo L. Vasconcelos


    Chapter 3: Landscape Connectivity and Biological Corridors 50


    Susan G. W. Laurance


    Part II: The Ecological Economics of Agroforestry:


    Environmental Benefits and Effects


    on Deforestation 65


    Chapter 4: The Economic Valuation of Agroforestry’s


    Environmental Services 67


    David Pearce and Susana Mourato


    vii viii Contents


    Chapter 5: Is Agroforestry Likely to Reduce Deforestation? 87


    Arild Angelsen and David Kaimowitz


    Chapter 6: Chocolate Forests and Monocultures: A Historical


    Review of Cocoa Growing and Its Conflicting Role in


    Tropical Deforestation and Forest Conservation 107


    François Ruf and Götz Schroth


    Chapter 7: Achieving Biodiversity Conservation Using


    Conservation Concessions to Complement


    Agroforestry 135


    Eduard Niesten, Shelley Ratay, and Richard Rice


    Part III: The Biodiversity of Agroforestry Systems:


    Habitat, Biological Corridor, and Buffer


    for Protected Areas 151


    Chapter 8: The Biodiversity and Conservation Potential of Shifting


    Cultivation Landscapes 153


    Bryan Finegan and Robert Nasi


    Chapter 9: Biodiversity Conservation in Neotropical Coffee


    (Coffea arabica) Plantations 198


    Eduardo Somarriba, Celia A. Harvey, Mario Samper, François


    Anthony, Jorge González, Charles Staver, and Robert A. Rice


    Chapter 10: Complex Agroforests: Their Structure, Diversity,


    and Potential Role in Landscape Conservation 227


    Götz Schroth, Celia A. Harvey, and Grégoire Vincent


    Chapter 11: Live Fences, Isolated Trees, and Windbreaks: Tools


    for Conserving Biodiversity in Fragmented Tropical


    Landscapes 261


    Celia A. Harvey, Nigel I. J. Tucker, and Alejandro Estrada


    Chapter 12: Agroforestry Systems: Important Components in


    Conserving the Genetic Viability of Native Tropical


    Tree Species? 290


    David H. Boshier Contents ix


    Part IV: Biodiversity as Burden and Natural Capital:


    Interactions between Agroforestry Areas, Natural


    Ecosystems, and Rural Communities in Tropical


    Land Use Mosaics 315


    Chapter 13: Wildlife Conservation in Agroforestry Buffer Zones:


    Opportunities and Conflict 319


    Lisa Naughton-Treves and Nick Salafsky


    Chapter 14: Hunting in Agroforestry Systems and Landscapes:


    Conservation Implications in West-Central Africa


    and Southeast Asia 346


    David S. Wilkie and Robert J. Lee


    Chapter 15: Invasive Agroforestry Trees: Problems


    and Solutions 371


    David M. Richardson, Pierre Binggeli, and Götz Schroth


    Chapter 16: Diseases in Tropical Agroforestry Landscapes: The Role


    of Biodiversity 397


    Ulrike Krauss


    Part V: Matrix Management in Practice: Agroforestry Tools


    in Landscape Conservation 413


    Chapter 17: Agroforestry Buffer Zones and Stepping Stones:


    Tools for the Conservation of Fragmented Landscapes


    in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest 415


    Laury Cullen Jr., Jefferson Ferreira Lima, and Tiago Pavan Beltrame


    Chapter 18: Agroforestry and Biodiversity: Improving Conservation


    Outcomes in Tropical Northeastern Australia 431


    Nigel I. J. Tucker, Grant Wardell-Johnson, Carla P. Catterall,


    and John Kanowski


    Chapter 19: Silvopastoral Systems: Ecological and Socioeconomic


    Benefits and Migratory Bird Conservation 453


    Robert A. Rice and Russell Greenberg


    Chapter 20: Agroforestry and Climate Change–Integrated


    Conservation Strategies 473


    Lee Hannah


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