Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes

Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes

Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes

537 Pages ·2010·5.95 MB ·English

Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes

About Island Press


Island Press is the only nonprofit organization in the United States whose principal


purpose is the publication of books on environmental issues and natural resource man-


agement. We provide solutions-oriented information to professionals, public officials,


business and community leaders, and concerned citizens who are shaping responses to


environmental problems.


In 2004, Island Press celebrates its twentieth anniversary as the leading provider of


timely and practical books that take a multidisciplinary approach to critical environ-


mental concerns. Our growing list of titles reflects our commitment to bringing the


best of an expanding body of literature to the environmental community throughout


North America and the world.


Support for Island Press is provided by the Agua Fund, Brainerd Foundation,


Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, Educational


Foundation of America, The Ford Foundation, The George Gund Foundation, The


William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Henry Luce Foundation, The John D. and


Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, The Cur-


tis and Edith Munson Foundation, National Environmental Trust, National Fish and


Wildlife Foundation, The New-Land Foundation, Oak Foundation, The Overbrook


Foundation, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, The Pew Charitable Trusts,


The Rockefeller Foundation, The Winslow Foundation, and other generous donors.


The opinions expressed in this book are those of the author(s) and do not neces-


sarily reflect the views of these foundations. Agroforestry and


Biodiversity Conservation


in Tropical Landscapes Agroforestry and


Biodiversity Conservation


in Tropical Landscapes


EDITED BY


Götz Schroth, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca,


Celia A. Harvey, Claude Gascon,


Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, and


Anne-Marie N. Izac


Washington • Covelo • London Copyright © 2004 Island Press


All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of


this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from


the publisher: Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC


20009.


ISLAND PRESS is a trademark of The Center for Resource Economics.


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


(CIP Data to come)


British Cataloguing-in-Publication Data available.


Book design by Brighid Willson


Printed on recycled, acid-free paper


Manufactured in the United States of America


09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Contents


Preface xi


Introduction: The Role of Agroforestry in Biodiversity Conservation


in Tropical Landscapes 1


Götz Schroth, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Celia A. Harvey,


Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Claude Gascon, and Anne-Marie N. Izac


Part I: Conservation Biology and Landscape Ecology


in the Tropics: A Framework for Agroforestry


Applications 13


Chapter 1: Biodiversity Conservation in Deforested and


Fragmented Tropical Landscapes: An Overview 15


Claude Gascon, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Wes Sechrest,


Kaycie A. Billmark, and James Sanderson


Chapter 2: Ecological Effects of Habitat Fragmentation in the


Tropics 33


William F. Laurance and Heraldo L. Vasconcelos


Chapter 3: Landscape Connectivity and Biological Corridors 50


Susan G. W. Laurance


Part II: The Ecological Economics of Agroforestry:


Environmental Benefits and Effects


on Deforestation 65


Chapter 4: The Economic Valuation of Agroforestry’s


Environmental Services 67


David Pearce and Susana Mourato


vii viii Contents


Chapter 5: Is Agroforestry Likely to Reduce Deforestation? 87


Arild Angelsen and David Kaimowitz


Chapter 6: Chocolate Forests and Monocultures: A Historical


Review of Cocoa Growing and Its Conflicting Role in


Tropical Deforestation and Forest Conservation 107


François Ruf and Götz Schroth


Chapter 7: Achieving Biodiversity Conservation Using


Conservation Concessions to Complement


Agroforestry 135


Eduard Niesten, Shelley Ratay, and Richard Rice


Part III: The Biodiversity of Agroforestry Systems:


Habitat, Biological Corridor, and Buffer


for Protected Areas 151


Chapter 8: The Biodiversity and Conservation Potential of Shifting


Cultivation Landscapes 153


Bryan Finegan and Robert Nasi


Chapter 9: Biodiversity Conservation in Neotropical Coffee


(Coffea arabica) Plantations 198


Eduardo Somarriba, Celia A. Harvey, Mario Samper, François


Anthony, Jorge González, Charles Staver, and Robert A. Rice


Chapter 10: Complex Agroforests: Their Structure, Diversity,


and Potential Role in Landscape Conservation 227


Götz Schroth, Celia A. Harvey, and Grégoire Vincent


Chapter 11: Live Fences, Isolated Trees, and Windbreaks: Tools


for Conserving Biodiversity in Fragmented Tropical


Landscapes 261


Celia A. Harvey, Nigel I. J. Tucker, and Alejandro Estrada


Chapter 12: Agroforestry Systems: Important Components in


Conserving the Genetic Viability of Native Tropical


Tree Species? 290


David H. Boshier Contents ix


Part IV: Biodiversity as Burden and Natural Capital:


Interactions between Agroforestry Areas, Natural


Ecosystems, and Rural Communities in Tropical


Land Use Mosaics 315


Chapter 13: Wildlife Conservation in Agroforestry Buffer Zones:


Opportunities and Conflict 319


Lisa Naughton-Treves and Nick Salafsky


Chapter 14: Hunting in Agroforestry Systems and Landscapes:


Conservation Implications in West-Central Africa


and Southeast Asia 346


David S. Wilkie and Robert J. Lee


Chapter 15: Invasive Agroforestry Trees: Problems


and Solutions 371


David M. Richardson, Pierre Binggeli, and Götz Schroth


Chapter 16: Diseases in Tropical Agroforestry Landscapes: The Role


of Biodiversity 397


Ulrike Krauss


Part V: Matrix Management in Practice: Agroforestry Tools


in Landscape Conservation 413


Chapter 17: Agroforestry Buffer Zones and Stepping Stones:


Tools for the Conservation of Fragmented Landscapes


in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest 415


Laury Cullen Jr., Jefferson Ferreira Lima, and Tiago Pavan Beltrame


Chapter 18: Agroforestry and Biodiversity: Improving Conservation


Outcomes in Tropical Northeastern Australia 431


Nigel I. J. Tucker, Grant Wardell-Johnson, Carla P. Catterall,


and John Kanowski


Chapter 19: Silvopastoral Systems: Ecological and Socioeconomic


Benefits and Migratory Bird Conservation 453


Robert A. Rice and Russell Greenberg


Chapter 20: Agroforestry and Climate Change–Integrated


Conservation Strategies 473


Lee Hannah


About Island Press


Island Press is the only nonprofit organization in the United States whose principal


purpose is the publication of books on environmental issues and natural resource man-


agement. We provide solutions-oriented information to professionals, public officials,


business and community leaders, and concerned citizens who are shaping responses to


environmental problems.


In 2004, Island Press celebrates its twentieth anniversary as the leading provider of


timely and practical books that take a multidisciplinary approach to critical environ-


mental concerns. Our growing list of titles reflects our commitment to bringing the


best of an expanding body of literature to the environmental community throughout


North America and the world.


Support for Island Press is provided by the Agua Fund, Brainerd Foundation,


Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, Educational


Foundation of America, The Ford Foundation, The George Gund Foundation, The


William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Henry Luce Foundation, The John D. and


Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, The Cur-


tis and Edith Munson Foundation, National Environmental Trust, National Fish and


Wildlife Foundation, The New-Land Foundation, Oak Foundation, The Overbrook


Foundation, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, The Pew Charitable Trusts,


The Rockefeller Foundation, The Winslow Foundation, and other generous donors.


The opinions expressed in this book are those of the author(s) and do not neces-


sarily reflect the views of these foundations. Agroforestry and


Biodiversity Conservation


in Tropical Landscapes Agroforestry and


Biodiversity Conservation


in Tropical Landscapes


EDITED BY


Götz Schroth, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca,


Celia A. Harvey, Claude Gascon,


Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, and


Anne-Marie N. Izac


Washington • Covelo • London Copyright © 2004 Island Press


All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of


this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from


the publisher: Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC


20009.


ISLAND PRESS is a trademark of The Center for Resource Economics.


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


(CIP Data to come)


British Cataloguing-in-Publication Data available.


Book design by Brighid Willson


Printed on recycled, acid-free paper


Manufactured in the United States of America


09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Contents


Preface xi


Introduction: The Role of Agroforestry in Biodiversity Conservation


in Tropical Landscapes 1


Götz Schroth, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Celia A. Harvey,


Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Claude Gascon, and Anne-Marie N. Izac


Part I: Conservation Biology and Landscape Ecology


in the Tropics: A Framework for Agroforestry


Applications 13


Chapter 1: Biodiversity Conservation in Deforested and


Fragmented Tropical Landscapes: An Overview 15


Claude Gascon, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Wes Sechrest,


Kaycie A. Billmark, and James Sanderson


Chapter 2: Ecological Effects of Habitat Fragmentation in the


Tropics 33


William F. Laurance and Heraldo L. Vasconcelos


Chapter 3: Landscape Connectivity and Biological Corridors 50


Susan G. W. Laurance


Part II: The Ecological Economics of Agroforestry:


Environmental Benefits and Effects


on Deforestation 65


Chapter 4: The Economic Valuation of Agroforestry’s


Environmental Services 67


David Pearce and Susana Mourato


vii viii Contents


Chapter 5: Is Agroforestry Likely to Reduce Deforestation? 87


Arild Angelsen and David Kaimowitz


Chapter 6: Chocolate Forests and Monocultures: A Historical


Review of Cocoa Growing and Its Conflicting Role in


Tropical Deforestation and Forest Conservation 107


François Ruf and Götz Schroth


Chapter 7: Achieving Biodiversity Conservation Using


Conservation Concessions to Complement


Agroforestry 135


Eduard Niesten, Shelley Ratay, and Richard Rice


Part III: The Biodiversity of Agroforestry Systems:


Habitat, Biological Corridor, and Buffer


for Protected Areas 151


Chapter 8: The Biodiversity and Conservation Potential of Shifting


Cultivation Landscapes 153


Bryan Finegan and Robert Nasi


Chapter 9: Biodiversity Conservation in Neotropical Coffee


(Coffea arabica) Plantations 198


Eduardo Somarriba, Celia A. Harvey, Mario Samper, François


Anthony, Jorge González, Charles Staver, and Robert A. Rice


Chapter 10: Complex Agroforests: Their Structure, Diversity,


and Potential Role in Landscape Conservation 227


Götz Schroth, Celia A. Harvey, and Grégoire Vincent


Chapter 11: Live Fences, Isolated Trees, and Windbreaks: Tools


for Conserving Biodiversity in Fragmented Tropical


Landscapes 261


Celia A. Harvey, Nigel I. J. Tucker, and Alejandro Estrada


Chapter 12: Agroforestry Systems: Important Components in


Conserving the Genetic Viability of Native Tropical


Tree Species? 290


David H. Boshier Contents ix


Part IV: Biodiversity as Burden and Natural Capital:


Interactions between Agroforestry Areas, Natural


Ecosystems, and Rural Communities in Tropical


Land Use Mosaics 315


Chapter 13: Wildlife Conservation in Agroforestry Buffer Zones:


Opportunities and Conflict 319


Lisa Naughton-Treves and Nick Salafsky


Chapter 14: Hunting in Agroforestry Systems and Landscapes:


Conservation Implications in West-Central Africa


and Southeast Asia 346


David S. Wilkie and Robert J. Lee


Chapter 15: Invasive Agroforestry Trees: Problems


and Solutions 371


David M. Richardson, Pierre Binggeli, and Götz Schroth


Chapter 16: Diseases in Tropical Agroforestry Landscapes: The Role


of Biodiversity 397


Ulrike Krauss


Part V: Matrix Management in Practice: Agroforestry Tools


in Landscape Conservation 413


Chapter 17: Agroforestry Buffer Zones and Stepping Stones:


Tools for the Conservation of Fragmented Landscapes


in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest 415


Laury Cullen Jr., Jefferson Ferreira Lima, and Tiago Pavan Beltrame


Chapter 18: Agroforestry and Biodiversity: Improving Conservation


Outcomes in Tropical Northeastern Australia 431


Nigel I. J. Tucker, Grant Wardell-Johnson, Carla P. Catterall,


and John Kanowski


Chapter 19: Silvopastoral Systems: Ecological and Socioeconomic


Benefits and Migratory Bird Conservation 453


Robert A. Rice and Russell Greenberg


Chapter 20: Agroforestry and Climate Change–Integrated


Conservation Strategies 473


Lee Hannah


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