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A History of the World

1008 Pages · 2005 · 12.75 MB · English

  • A History of the World

    1 A HISTORY OF THE WORLD


    FROM THE 20th TO THE


    21st CENTURY


    With the onset of decolonisation, the rise and fall of fascism and communism, the technological revo-


    lution and the rapidly increasing power of the US, the world since 1900 has witnessed global change


    on an immense scale. Providing a comprehensive survey of the key events and personalities of this period


    throughout the world, A History of the World from the 20th to the 21st Century includes discussion of


    topics such as:


    • the conflict in Europe, 1900–19


    • the brutal world of the dictators, 1930s and 1940s


    • the lost peace: the global impact of the Cold War


    • independence in Asia and Africa


    • the ‘war’ against terror.


    This now acclaimed history of the world has been updated throughout to take account of recent his-


    torical research. Bringing the story up to date, J. A. S. Grenville includes a discussion of events such


    as 9/11, recent economic problems in Latin America, the second Gulf War and the enlargement of the


    European Union.


    A fascinating and authoritative account of the world since 1900, A History of the World from the


    20th to the 21st Century is essential reading for the general reader and student of world history alike.


    J. A. S. Grenville is Professor of Modern History, Emeritus, at the University of Birmingham. He is


    a distinguished historian and is the author of a number of books, including Politics, Strategy and


    American Diplomacy (1969), Europe Reshaped, 1848–1878(1999) and The Major International Treaties


    of the Twentieth Century (2000). ‘A sweeping synopsis for the history buff.’ Philadelphia Inquirer


    ‘Students of history are fortunate to have Grenville’s monumental history available.’ Ronald H. Fritze,


    American Reference Books Annual


    ‘Follows a relatively new trend among historians to abandon their sometimes narrow parochialism in


    favour of “world history” ... This volume deals with more thematic issues like industrialization, the


    empowerment of women, the rise of environmental concerns and multinational corporations.’ Foreign


    Affairs


    ‘Magnificently detailed, brilliantly written ... An extraordinarily readable global history.’ Parade


    Magazine


    ‘This book by the masterful international relations historian, Grenville, already finds primacy of place


    in the reading lists of most university courses as the single definitive history of this century.’ The Journal


    of the United Service Institution of India 1 A HISTORY OF THE WORLD


    FROM THE 20th TO THE


    21st CENTURY


    J. A. S. Grenville The first half of this work was originally published in an earlier form as


    A World History of the Twentieth Century Volume I: Western Dominance,


    1900–45by Fontana Press, 1980


    Earlier editions of this work were published as The Collins History of the World


    in the Twentieth Centuryby HarperCollins, 1994, 1998, and in the USA and


    Canada as A History of the World in the 20th Centuryby the Belknap Press of


    Harvard University Press, 1994, 2000


    This edition published 2005


    by Routledge


    2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN


    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada


    by Routledge


    270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016


    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group


    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library,2005.


    “To purchaseyourown copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s


    collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”


    © 1980, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2005 J. A. S. Grenville


    The right of J. A. S. Grenville to be identified as the Author of this Work has


    been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents


    Act 1988


    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or


    utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now


    known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in


    any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing


    from the publishers.


    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library


    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data


    Grenville, J. A. S. (John Ashley Soames), 1928–


    A history of the world from the twentieth to the twenty-first century/


    J.A.S. Grenville.


    p. cm.


    Rev. ed. of: A history of the world in the twentieth century/J.A.S.


    Grenville. Enl. ed.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    1. History, Modern – 20th century. 2. History, Modern – 21st century.


    I. Grenville, J. A. S. (John Ashley Soames), 1928– History of the world in


    the twentieth century. II. Title.


    D421.G647 2005


    909.82–dc22 2004015939


    ISBN0-203-64176-0 Mastere-bookISBN


    ISBN0-203-67494-4 (AdobeeReaderFormat)


    ISBN 0–415–28954–8 (hbk)


    ISBN 0–415–28955–6 (pbk) 1


    CONTENTS


    List of figures viii 10 The Great War II: the end of war


    List of maps ix in the West, 1917–18 109


    Acknowledgements x 11 Peacemaking in an unstable world,


    Preface xi 1918–23 114


    12 Democracy on trial: Weimar Germany 127


    Prologue: the world from the 20th 13 Britain, France and the US from war


    to the 21st century 1 to peace 133


    14 Italy and the rise of fascism 143


    I SOCIAL CHANGE AND NATIONAL


    RIVALRY IN EUROPE, 1900–14 15


    IV THE CONTINUING WORLD CRISIS,


    1 Hereditary foes and uncertain allies 17


    1929–39 151


    2 The British Empire: premonition


    15 The Depression, 1929–39 153


    of decline 33


    16 Soviet Russia: ‘communism in


    3 The last decades of the multinational


    transition’ 168


    Russian and Habsburg Empires 41


    17 The failure of parliamentary


    4 Over the brink: the five-week crisis,


    democracy in Germany and the


    28 June–1 August 1914 54


    rise of Hitler, 1920–34 181


    18 The mounting conflict in eastern


    II BEYOND EUROPE: THE SHIFTING Asia, 1928–37 194


    BALANCE OF GLOBAL POWER 63 19 The crumbling peace, 1933–6 204


    5 The emergence of the US as a world 20 The Spanish Civil War and Europe,


    power 65 1936–9 213


    6 China in disintegration, 1900–29 73 21 The outbreak of war in Europe,


    7 The emergence of Japan, 1900–29 80 1937–9 220


    III THE GREAT WAR, REVOLUTION V THE SECOND WORLD WAR 239


    AND THE SEARCH FOR 22 Germany’s wars of conquest in


    STABILITY 87 Europe, 1939–41 241


    8 The Great War I: war without 23 The China War and the origins of


    decision, 1914–16 89 the Pacific War, 1937–41 255


    9 War and revolution in the East, 1917 100 24 The ordeal of the Second World War 263 vi CONTENTS


    25 The victory of the Allies, 1941–5 276 43 Eastern Europe and the Soviet


    Union: the Polish challenge and the


    Hungarian Rising 477


    VI POST-WAR EUROPE, 1945–7 307


    44 The fall of Khrushchev: the Soviet


    26 Zero hour: the Allies and the


    Union and the wider world 481


    Germans 309


    45 The Eisenhower years: caution at


    27 The Soviet Union: the price of


    home and containment abroad 486


    victory and the expanding empire 319


    28 Britain and the world: a legacy too


    XI THE RECOVERY OF WESTERN


    heavy to bear 328


    EUROPE IN THE 1950s AND 1960s 501


    29 France: a veil over the past 338


    46 West Germany: economic growth


    30 Italy: the enemy forgiven 345


    and political stability 503


    47 The French Fourth Republic:


    VII THE UNITED STATES AND THE economic growth and political


    BEGINNING OF THE COLD WAR, instability 514


    1945–8 351 48 The War of Algerian Independence:


    31 The United States: a reluctant world the Fifth Republic and the return of


    power 353 de Gaulle 524


    32 1948: crisis in Europe – Prague and 49 Britain: better times and retreat from


    Berlin 369 empire 535


    50 The tribulations and successes of


    Italian democracy 547


    VIII THE TRANSFORMATION OF ASIA,


    1945–55 377


    33 The struggle for independence: the XII WHO WILL LIBERATE THE THIRD


    Philippines, Malaya, Indonesia and WORLD? 1954–68 555


    Indo-China 379 51 America’s mission in the world: the


    34 India: from the Raj to independence, Eisenhower and Kennedy years,


    1947 390 1954–63 557


    35 China: the end of civil war and the 52 On the brink of a nuclear holocaust:


    the Cuban missile crisis, October


    victory of the communists 398


    1962 567


    36 1950: crisis in Asia – war in Korea 405


    53 The limits of power: the US during


    the 1960s 577


    IX THE ENDING OF EUROPEAN


    DOMINANCE IN THE MIDDLE


    XIII TWO FACES OF ASIA: AFTER


    EAST, 1919–80 415


    1949 587


    37 A profile of the Middle East 417


    54 Turmoil, war and bloodshed in


    38 The Middle East between two world


    south-east Asia 589


    wars, 1919–45 422


    55 The Vietnam War and after 601


    39 Britain, Israel and the Arabs, 1945–9 431


    56 Continuous revolution: Mao’s China 607


    40 1956: crisis in the Middle East – Suez 438


    57 The last years of Mao and his heirs:


    41 The struggle for predominance in the


    the revolution changes course 616


    Middle East 453


    58 Freedom and conflict in the Indian


    subcontinent: India, Pakistan and


    X THE COLD WAR: SUPERPOWER Bangladesh 629


    CONFRONTATION, 1948–64 467 59 The prosperous Pacific Rim I: Japan,


    42 The rise of Khrushchev: the Soviet Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore and


    Union and the West 469 South Korea 644 CONTENTS vii


    1 60 The prosperous Pacific Rim II: 69 The Soviet Union, crisis and reform:


    Australia and New Zealand 664 Gorbachev, Yeltsin and Putin 797


    70 The United States, global power:


    Reagan, Bush and Clinton 814


    XIV LATIN AMERICA AFTER 1945:


    PROBLEMS UNRESOLVED 679


    XVII WESTERN EUROPE GATHERS


    61 The world of Latin America 681


    STRENGTH: AFTER 1968 829


    62 Central America in revolution:


    Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, 71 The German Federal Republic:


    reaching maturity 831


    El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama


    72 Contemporary Italy: progress despite


    and Mexico 706


    politics 843


    73 How to make Britain more


    XV AFRICA AFTER 1945: CONFLICT prosperous: Conservative and Labour


    AND THE THREAT OF FAMINE 719 remedies 849


    63 The end of white rule in West Africa 721 74 The revival of France 864


    64 Freedom and conflict in Central and 75 The European Community 874


    East Africa 738


    65 War and famine in the Horn of Africa 748 XVIIIGLOBAL CHANGE: FROM THE


    66 Southern Africa: from white 20th TO 21st CENTURY 885


    supremacy to democracy 754 76 The Iron Curtain disintegrates: the


    death of communism in Eastern


    Europe 887


    XVI THE UNITED STATES AND THE


    77 Continuing turmoil and war in the


    SOVIET BLOC AFTER 1963: THE


    Middle East 903


    GREAT TRANSFORMATION 777


    78 The wars of Yugoslavia: a requiem 918


    67 The Soviet Union and the wider


    79 The ‘war on terror’ 927


    world, the Brezhnev years: crushing


    80 Into the new millennium: the


    the Prague Spring and the failure of


    twenty-first century 944


    reform 779


    68 The United States: from great Suggestions for further reading 958


    aspirations to disillusion 789 Index 976 FIGURES


    Nicholas II with his family 45 Ernest Bevin, Britain’s foreign secretary 368


    French soldiers to arms, 1914 60 The allied airlift 373


    German soldiers, to Paris, 1914 60 Gandhi and his followers 392


    Immigrants waiting in America 66 7 June 1947. Lord Mountbatten 395


    Lenin addressing a small street gathering 104 Seoul, or what’s left of it, in 1950 410


    The Versailles conference 117 US marines are caught by surprise 410


    Mussolini in heroic pose 149 David Ben Gurion proclaims the State


    New Yorkers mill around Wall Street 154 of Israel 436


    An unemployed German war veteran 155 Iran, February 1979 465


    The Great Communicator. President Two leaders 484


    Franklin D. Roosevelt 165 Adenauer campaigning in Bamberg 506


    Stalin at a collective farm in Tajikistan 178 The ‘Special Relationship’ 545


    Prussian honour allied to new barbarism 182 Martin Luther King 579


    The fascist salute greets General Franco 216 The march on Washington 580


    Militia coming to the aid of the Republic 217 The image that depicted humiliation 605


    Viennese Jews scrub paving stones 226 Beijing demonstrators, 1989 623


    Hitler and Mussolini, 1938 232 Japanese emperor Hirohito 645


    Chamberlain waves the Anglo-German Homeless children huddle together 684


    Agreement 233 Nigerian civil war victims, 1967 734


    A war leader. Winston Churchill, 1941 244 Famine in Ethiopia, 1984 744


    1940. A surprise visit 251 The realities of apartheid 766


    Survivors of the Warsaw ghetto rising 267 Johannesburg, South Africa 771


    9 August 1945. The mushroom cloud Nelson Mandela 772


    over Nagasaki 274 A historic handshake on the White


    Lucky those who were killed outright 275 House lawn 795


    African Americans served in the armed Yeltsin, 1991 807


    forces 280 No longer the ‘evil empire’ 819


    A warm welcome for a GI in Belfort 291 Students distribute underground literature 832


    The Potsdam Conference, 1945 300 The Gaza Strip 910


    Devastated Dresden 310 The UN in a non-combatant role 922


    Jews from a concentration camp 311 New York, World Trade Center 928


    Booty for the Russian meets resistance 313 Tony Blair, 1997 933


    The reconstruction of western Europe 367 Rwandan genocide, 1994 945 1


    MAPS


    The British, French and German world The occupation zones of Germany and


    empires, c.1900 8 Austria, 1945 297


    Europe in 1914 58 Europe after 1945 302


    The Americas 71 The Middle East, 1960–2 454


    China and Japan in Asia, 1900 78 Israel and the Arab states after 1967 460


    The western front, 1914 90 South-east Asia, 1960 591


    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 1918 107 India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka,


    Peace settlements, 1919–23 119 1972 636


    The Middle East, 1926 125 Asia, 1991 660


    The Spanish Civil War, 1936 219 The emergence of independence in Africa,


    The expansion of Germany, January 1970 723


    1935–October 1939 228 The Russian Federation and new states


    Japan’s war in Asia, 1937–45 257 of the former Soviet Union, 1992 809


    War in the Pacific, 1943–5 272 Germany, 1945–90 838


    The German invasion of Russia, 1941–2 281 Europe, 1993 888


    Defeat of Italy and Germany, July 1943– The break-up of Yugoslavia, 1991–5 899


    May 1945 290 The partition of Bosnia, 1995 923


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