A History of the World

1008 Pages · 2005 · 12.75 MB · English

  • A History of the World


    FROM THE 20th TO THE

    21st CENTURY

    With the onset of decolonisation, the rise and fall of fascism and communism, the technological revo-

    lution and the rapidly increasing power of the US, the world since 1900 has witnessed global change

    on an immense scale. Providing a comprehensive survey of the key events and personalities of this period

    throughout the world, A History of the World from the 20th to the 21st Century includes discussion of

    topics such as:

    • the conflict in Europe, 1900–19

    • the brutal world of the dictators, 1930s and 1940s

    • the lost peace: the global impact of the Cold War

    • independence in Asia and Africa

    • the ‘war’ against terror.

    This now acclaimed history of the world has been updated throughout to take account of recent his-

    torical research. Bringing the story up to date, J. A. S. Grenville includes a discussion of events such

    as 9/11, recent economic problems in Latin America, the second Gulf War and the enlargement of the

    European Union.

    A fascinating and authoritative account of the world since 1900, A History of the World from the

    20th to the 21st Century is essential reading for the general reader and student of world history alike.

    J. A. S. Grenville is Professor of Modern History, Emeritus, at the University of Birmingham. He is

    a distinguished historian and is the author of a number of books, including Politics, Strategy and

    American Diplomacy (1969), Europe Reshaped, 1848–1878(1999) and The Major International Treaties

    of the Twentieth Century (2000). ‘A sweeping synopsis for the history buff.’ Philadelphia Inquirer

    ‘Students of history are fortunate to have Grenville’s monumental history available.’ Ronald H. Fritze,

    American Reference Books Annual

    ‘Follows a relatively new trend among historians to abandon their sometimes narrow parochialism in

    favour of “world history” ... This volume deals with more thematic issues like industrialization, the

    empowerment of women, the rise of environmental concerns and multinational corporations.’ Foreign


    ‘Magnificently detailed, brilliantly written ... An extraordinarily readable global history.’ Parade


    ‘This book by the masterful international relations historian, Grenville, already finds primacy of place

    in the reading lists of most university courses as the single definitive history of this century.’ The Journal

    of the United Service Institution of India 1 A HISTORY OF THE WORLD

    FROM THE 20th TO THE

    21st CENTURY

    J. A. S. Grenville The first half of this work was originally published in an earlier form as

    A World History of the Twentieth Century Volume I: Western Dominance,

    1900–45by Fontana Press, 1980

    Earlier editions of this work were published as The Collins History of the World

    in the Twentieth Centuryby HarperCollins, 1994, 1998, and in the USA and

    Canada as A History of the World in the 20th Centuryby the Belknap Press of

    Harvard University Press, 1994, 2000

    This edition published 2005

    by Routledge

    2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada

    by Routledge

    270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016

    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group

    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library,2005.

    “To purchaseyourown copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s

    collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”

    © 1980, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2005 J. A. S. Grenville

    The right of J. A. S. Grenville to be identified as the Author of this Work has

    been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents

    Act 1988

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or

    utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now

    known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in

    any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing

    from the publishers.

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

    Grenville, J. A. S. (John Ashley Soames), 1928–

    A history of the world from the twentieth to the twenty-first century/

    J.A.S. Grenville.

    p. cm.

    Rev. ed. of: A history of the world in the twentieth century/J.A.S.

    Grenville. Enl. ed.

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    1. History, Modern – 20th century. 2. History, Modern – 21st century.

    I. Grenville, J. A. S. (John Ashley Soames), 1928– History of the world in

    the twentieth century. II. Title.

    D421.G647 2005

    909.82–dc22 2004015939

    ISBN0-203-64176-0 Mastere-bookISBN

    ISBN0-203-67494-4 (AdobeeReaderFormat)

    ISBN 0–415–28954–8 (hbk)

    ISBN 0–415–28955–6 (pbk) 1


    List of figures viii 10 The Great War II: the end of war

    List of maps ix in the West, 1917–18 109

    Acknowledgements x 11 Peacemaking in an unstable world,

    Preface xi 1918–23 114

    12 Democracy on trial: Weimar Germany 127

    Prologue: the world from the 20th 13 Britain, France and the US from war

    to the 21st century 1 to peace 133

    14 Italy and the rise of fascism 143


    RIVALRY IN EUROPE, 1900–14 15


    1 Hereditary foes and uncertain allies 17

    1929–39 151

    2 The British Empire: premonition

    15 The Depression, 1929–39 153

    of decline 33

    16 Soviet Russia: ‘communism in

    3 The last decades of the multinational

    transition’ 168

    Russian and Habsburg Empires 41

    17 The failure of parliamentary

    4 Over the brink: the five-week crisis,

    democracy in Germany and the

    28 June–1 August 1914 54

    rise of Hitler, 1920–34 181

    18 The mounting conflict in eastern

    II BEYOND EUROPE: THE SHIFTING Asia, 1928–37 194

    BALANCE OF GLOBAL POWER 63 19 The crumbling peace, 1933–6 204

    5 The emergence of the US as a world 20 The Spanish Civil War and Europe,

    power 65 1936–9 213

    6 China in disintegration, 1900–29 73 21 The outbreak of war in Europe,

    7 The emergence of Japan, 1900–29 80 1937–9 220


    AND THE SEARCH FOR 22 Germany’s wars of conquest in

    STABILITY 87 Europe, 1939–41 241

    8 The Great War I: war without 23 The China War and the origins of

    decision, 1914–16 89 the Pacific War, 1937–41 255

    9 War and revolution in the East, 1917 100 24 The ordeal of the Second World War 263 vi CONTENTS

    25 The victory of the Allies, 1941–5 276 43 Eastern Europe and the Soviet

    Union: the Polish challenge and the

    Hungarian Rising 477

    VI POST-WAR EUROPE, 1945–7 307

    44 The fall of Khrushchev: the Soviet

    26 Zero hour: the Allies and the

    Union and the wider world 481

    Germans 309

    45 The Eisenhower years: caution at

    27 The Soviet Union: the price of

    home and containment abroad 486

    victory and the expanding empire 319

    28 Britain and the world: a legacy too


    heavy to bear 328

    EUROPE IN THE 1950s AND 1960s 501

    29 France: a veil over the past 338

    46 West Germany: economic growth

    30 Italy: the enemy forgiven 345

    and political stability 503

    47 The French Fourth Republic:

    VII THE UNITED STATES AND THE economic growth and political

    BEGINNING OF THE COLD WAR, instability 514

    1945–8 351 48 The War of Algerian Independence:

    31 The United States: a reluctant world the Fifth Republic and the return of

    power 353 de Gaulle 524

    32 1948: crisis in Europe – Prague and 49 Britain: better times and retreat from

    Berlin 369 empire 535

    50 The tribulations and successes of

    Italian democracy 547


    1945–55 377

    33 The struggle for independence: the XII WHO WILL LIBERATE THE THIRD

    Philippines, Malaya, Indonesia and WORLD? 1954–68 555

    Indo-China 379 51 America’s mission in the world: the

    34 India: from the Raj to independence, Eisenhower and Kennedy years,

    1947 390 1954–63 557

    35 China: the end of civil war and the 52 On the brink of a nuclear holocaust:

    the Cuban missile crisis, October

    victory of the communists 398

    1962 567

    36 1950: crisis in Asia – war in Korea 405

    53 The limits of power: the US during

    the 1960s 577




    EAST, 1919–80 415

    1949 587

    37 A profile of the Middle East 417

    54 Turmoil, war and bloodshed in

    38 The Middle East between two world

    south-east Asia 589

    wars, 1919–45 422

    55 The Vietnam War and after 601

    39 Britain, Israel and the Arabs, 1945–9 431

    56 Continuous revolution: Mao’s China 607

    40 1956: crisis in the Middle East – Suez 438

    57 The last years of Mao and his heirs:

    41 The struggle for predominance in the

    the revolution changes course 616

    Middle East 453

    58 Freedom and conflict in the Indian

    subcontinent: India, Pakistan and

    X THE COLD WAR: SUPERPOWER Bangladesh 629

    CONFRONTATION, 1948–64 467 59 The prosperous Pacific Rim I: Japan,

    42 The rise of Khrushchev: the Soviet Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore and

    Union and the West 469 South Korea 644 CONTENTS vii

    1 60 The prosperous Pacific Rim II: 69 The Soviet Union, crisis and reform:

    Australia and New Zealand 664 Gorbachev, Yeltsin and Putin 797

    70 The United States, global power:

    Reagan, Bush and Clinton 814




    61 The world of Latin America 681

    STRENGTH: AFTER 1968 829

    62 Central America in revolution:

    Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, 71 The German Federal Republic:

    reaching maturity 831

    El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama

    72 Contemporary Italy: progress despite

    and Mexico 706

    politics 843

    73 How to make Britain more

    XV AFRICA AFTER 1945: CONFLICT prosperous: Conservative and Labour

    AND THE THREAT OF FAMINE 719 remedies 849

    63 The end of white rule in West Africa 721 74 The revival of France 864

    64 Freedom and conflict in Central and 75 The European Community 874

    East Africa 738

    65 War and famine in the Horn of Africa 748 XVIIIGLOBAL CHANGE: FROM THE

    66 Southern Africa: from white 20th TO 21st CENTURY 885

    supremacy to democracy 754 76 The Iron Curtain disintegrates: the

    death of communism in Eastern

    Europe 887


    77 Continuing turmoil and war in the


    Middle East 903


    78 The wars of Yugoslavia: a requiem 918

    67 The Soviet Union and the wider

    79 The ‘war on terror’ 927

    world, the Brezhnev years: crushing

    80 Into the new millennium: the

    the Prague Spring and the failure of

    twenty-first century 944

    reform 779

    68 The United States: from great Suggestions for further reading 958

    aspirations to disillusion 789 Index 976 FIGURES

    Nicholas II with his family 45 Ernest Bevin, Britain’s foreign secretary 368

    French soldiers to arms, 1914 60 The allied airlift 373

    German soldiers, to Paris, 1914 60 Gandhi and his followers 392

    Immigrants waiting in America 66 7 June 1947. Lord Mountbatten 395

    Lenin addressing a small street gathering 104 Seoul, or what’s left of it, in 1950 410

    The Versailles conference 117 US marines are caught by surprise 410

    Mussolini in heroic pose 149 David Ben Gurion proclaims the State

    New Yorkers mill around Wall Street 154 of Israel 436

    An unemployed German war veteran 155 Iran, February 1979 465

    The Great Communicator. President Two leaders 484

    Franklin D. Roosevelt 165 Adenauer campaigning in Bamberg 506

    Stalin at a collective farm in Tajikistan 178 The ‘Special Relationship’ 545

    Prussian honour allied to new barbarism 182 Martin Luther King 579

    The fascist salute greets General Franco 216 The march on Washington 580

    Militia coming to the aid of the Republic 217 The image that depicted humiliation 605

    Viennese Jews scrub paving stones 226 Beijing demonstrators, 1989 623

    Hitler and Mussolini, 1938 232 Japanese emperor Hirohito 645

    Chamberlain waves the Anglo-German Homeless children huddle together 684

    Agreement 233 Nigerian civil war victims, 1967 734

    A war leader. Winston Churchill, 1941 244 Famine in Ethiopia, 1984 744

    1940. A surprise visit 251 The realities of apartheid 766

    Survivors of the Warsaw ghetto rising 267 Johannesburg, South Africa 771

    9 August 1945. The mushroom cloud Nelson Mandela 772

    over Nagasaki 274 A historic handshake on the White

    Lucky those who were killed outright 275 House lawn 795

    African Americans served in the armed Yeltsin, 1991 807

    forces 280 No longer the ‘evil empire’ 819

    A warm welcome for a GI in Belfort 291 Students distribute underground literature 832

    The Potsdam Conference, 1945 300 The Gaza Strip 910

    Devastated Dresden 310 The UN in a non-combatant role 922

    Jews from a concentration camp 311 New York, World Trade Center 928

    Booty for the Russian meets resistance 313 Tony Blair, 1997 933

    The reconstruction of western Europe 367 Rwandan genocide, 1994 945 1


    The British, French and German world The occupation zones of Germany and

    empires, c.1900 8 Austria, 1945 297

    Europe in 1914 58 Europe after 1945 302

    The Americas 71 The Middle East, 1960–2 454

    China and Japan in Asia, 1900 78 Israel and the Arab states after 1967 460

    The western front, 1914 90 South-east Asia, 1960 591

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 1918 107 India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka,

    Peace settlements, 1919–23 119 1972 636

    The Middle East, 1926 125 Asia, 1991 660

    The Spanish Civil War, 1936 219 The emergence of independence in Africa,

    The expansion of Germany, January 1970 723

    1935–October 1939 228 The Russian Federation and new states

    Japan’s war in Asia, 1937–45 257 of the former Soviet Union, 1992 809

    War in the Pacific, 1943–5 272 Germany, 1945–90 838

    The German invasion of Russia, 1941–2 281 Europe, 1993 888

    Defeat of Italy and Germany, July 1943– The break-up of Yugoslavia, 1991–5 899

    May 1945 290 The partition of Bosnia, 1995 923

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