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A History of India, Third Edition

406 Pages · 2002 · 1.71 MB · English

  • A History of India, Third Edition

    A HISTORY OF INDIA


    A History of India presents the grand sweep of Indian history from antiquity


    to the present in a compact and readable survey. This new edition has been


    thoroughly revised, containing extensive new research and material, as well


    as an updated preface, bibliography, chronology and index.


    The authors examine the major political, economic, social and cultural


    forces which have shaped the history of the Indian subcontinent. This


    classic text is an authoritative and detailed account which emphasises and


    analyses the structural pattern of Indian history.


    Hermann Kulke holds the chair in Asian History at the University of Kiel.


    Dietmar Rothermund is Professor and Head of History at the South Asian


    Institute, University of Heidelberg. A HISTORY OF


    INDIA


    Third Edition


    Hermann Kulke and


    Dietmar Rothermund


    London and New York First published 1986 in hardback by


    Croom Helm Australia Pty Ltd


    Second edition first published 1990 in paperback


    This edition first published 1998 by Routledge


    11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE


    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by


    Routledge


    29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001



    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group



    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2002.



    © 1986, 1990, 1998 Hermann Kulke and


    Dietmar Rothermund


    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted


    or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic,


    mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter


    invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any


    information storage or retrieval system, without permission


    in writing from the publishers.



    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


    A catalogue record for this book is available from the


    British Library



    Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data


    Kulke, Hermann.


    A History of India/Hermann Kulke and Dietmar


    Rothermund.—3rd ed.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    1. India-History. I. Rothermund, Dietmar. II. Title.


    DS436.K8513 1998 97–14068 CIP


    954–dc21



    ISBN 0-203-44345-4 Master e-book ISBN





    ISBN 0-203-75169-8 (Adobe eReader Format)


    ISBN 0–415–15481–2 (hbk)


    ISBN 0–415–15482–0 (pbk) CONTENTS


    List of maps vii


    Preface viii


    INTRODUCTION: HISTORY AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1


    1 EARLY CIVILISATIONS OF THE NORTHWEST 16


    Prehistory and the Indus civilisation 16


    Immigration and settlement of the Indo-Aryans 29


    2 THE GREAT ANCIENT EMPIRES 47


    The rise of the Gangetic culture and the great empires


    of the east 47


    The end of the Maurya empire and the northern invaders 67


    The classical age of the Guptas 81


    The rise of South India 91


    3 THE REGIONAL KINGDOMS OF EARLY


    MEDIEVAL INDIA 103


    The rise and conflicts of regional kingdoms 103


    Kings, princes and priests: the structure of Hindu realms 120


    Gods, temples and poets: the growth of regional cultures 130


    India’s impact on Southeast Asia: causes and consequences 143


    4 RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES AND MILITARY


    FEUDALISM IN THE LATE MIDDLE AGES 152


    The Islamic conquest of northern India and the sultanate


    of Delhi 152


    The states of central and southern India in the period of


    the sultanate of Delhi 169


    5 THE RISE AND FALL OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE 184


    The Great Mughals and their adversaries 184


    Indian landpower and European seapower 197


    The struggle for supremacy in India 210


    v CONTENTS


    6 THE PERIOD OF COLONIAL RULE 224


    Company Bahadur: trader and ruler 224


    Imperial structure and the regional impact 239


    The pattern of constitutional reform 252


    7 THE FREEDOM MOVEMENT AND THE PARTITION


    OF INDIA 258


    The Indian freedom movement 258


    The partition of India 281


    8 THE REPUBLIC 294


    Internal affairs: political and economic development 294


    External affairs: global and regional dimensions 318


    PERSPECTIVES 333


    Bibliography and notes 336


    Chronology 354


    Maps 362


    Index 373


    vi MAPS


    1 History and the Environment 362


    2 Indus Civilisation 363


    3 Early Cultures of the Gangetic Valley (c. 1000–500 BC) 363


    4 Maurya Empire under Ashoka (268–233 BC) 364


    5 India c. 0–AD 300 365


    6 The Gupta Empire (320–500) 366


    7 Regional Kingdoms in the Early Seventh Century 367


    8 Regional Kingdoms of the Early Middle Ages (c. 900–1200) 367


    9 Territorial Development of Orissa (c. 600–1400) 368


    10 Temple Donations and Ritual Policy in Vijayanagara


    (1505–9) 368


    11 Late Middle Ages (1206–1526): Delhi Sultanate and


    Late Regional Empires 369


    12 The Mughal Empire 370


    13 The British Penetration of India (1750–1860) 371


    14 The Republic of India 372


    vii PREFACE


    India’s history is the fascinating epic of a great civilisation. It is a history of


    amazing cultural continuity which has reasserted itself again and again.


    Today it is the history of one-fifth of mankind which is, therefore, of


    importance to all of us. Both Indian and foreign historians have been


    attracted by this great theme and each generation has produced its own


    histories of India. Several histories of India have been written in recent


    times, thus the authors of the present volume may be asked why they have


    dared to publish yet another account of Indian history. First of all research


    in Indian history to which both authors have contributed in their own way


    is progressing rapidly and an adequate synthesis is needed at more frequent


    intervals which reflects the current state of knowledge and stimulates


    further inquiries. This kind of up-to-date synthesis the authors hope to


    have provided here. Furthermore, Indian history from antiquity to the


    present is such an enormous subject that it requires more than one author


    to cope with it. Consequently many surveys of Indian history have been


    presented by teams of authors, but these authors rarely have had the


    benefit of working together in the same department discussing problems of


    Indian history for many years. This has been the good fortune of the


    present authors who have worked together at the South Asia Institute of


    Heidelberg University for nearly twenty years. In the late 1970s they first


    embarked on this joint venture at the request of a German publisher. The


    German edition of this volume was published in 1982. The first English


    edition was published by David Croom of Croom Helm, London, in 1986.


    Subsequently the rights were acquired by Routledge, London, and ever


    since the Routledge editorial team has been helpful in bringing out several


    new editions of this text which seem to have attracted many readers.


    Inspired by this interest in their work the authors have prepared this


    thoroughly revised edition in January 1997. They updated the text not only


    with regard to recent history, they also tried to take into account all major


    new publications in the field so as to reflect the state of the art in historical


    research. They have benefited from numerous discussions with Indian,


    British and American colleagues many of whom cannot read their German


    viii PREFACE


    publications and, therefore, they are glad to be able to communicate with


    them in this way. But, of course, this history of India is not primarily


    devoted to a dialogue among historians, it is written for the student and


    the general reader.


    To this reader the authors want to introduce themselves here. Hermann


    Kulke studied Indology (Sanskrit) and history at Freiburg University and


    did his PhD thesis on the Cidambaram Mahatmya, a text which


    encompasses the tradition of the South Indian temple city Chidambaram.


    His second major book was on the Gajapati kingship of Orissa. He has


    actively participated in the Orissa Research Project of the German


    Research Council and was co-editor of The Cult of Jagannath and the


    Regional Tradition of Orissa. At present he is conducting a research


    project on the temple chronicles of Orissa. He has also worked on Indian


    historiography and medieval state formation in India and Indonesia and on


    the Devaraja cult of Angkor. Recently he published a book on state


    formation and legitimation in India and Southeast Asia and edited The


    State in India 1000–1700. In 1988 he was called to the new Chair of Asian


    History at Kiel University. The distance between Heidelberg and Kiel has


    not reduced the contacts with his co-author. Dietmar Rothermund studied


    history and philosophy at Marburg and Munich Universities and at the


    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, where he did his PhD thesis on


    the history of eighteenth-century Pennsylvania. He then went to India and


    worked on a history of the Indian freedom movement which was published


    in 1965. He subsequently published a book on India and the Soviet Union


    and a detailed research monograph on agrarian relations in India under


    British rule. His most recent publication is a comprehensive political


    biography of Mahatma Gandhi. He participated in the Dhanbad Project of


    the South Asia Interdisciplinary Regional Research Programme. This


    project was devoted to the study of the history, economy and social


    conditions of an Indian coalfield and its rural hinterland. He has mostly


    worked on Indian economic history. In recent years he has published An


    Economic History of India as a companion volume to A History of India.


    This short textbook first appeared in 1988; a revised edition was published


    in 1993 by Routledge. He has produced a research monograph on India in


    the Great Depression, 1929–1939 (1992), followed by a more general text


    on Global Impact of the Great Depression, 1929–1939 (1996). He is now


    working on a research monograph on liberalisation in India. The research


    interests of the two authors are also reflected in the pages of this volume,


    but they have taken care to present a balanced picture and not to get


    carried away by their enthusiasm for their favourite subjects. As An


    Economic History of India covers this aspect of Indian history, references


    to the economic context have been restricted here to some essential points.


    In keeping with their respective fields of specialisation the authors have


    divided the work on this volume. Hermann Kulke has written chapters 1 to


    ix


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