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A Dictionary of Philosophy of Religion

317 Pages · 2010 · 2.14 MB · English

  • A Dictionary of Philosophy of Religion

    A Dictionary of Philosophy of Religion


    CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd i 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM This page intentionally left blank A DICTIONARY OF


    PHILOSOPHY OF


    RELIGION


    EDITED BY


    Charles Taliaferro and Elsa J. Marty


    CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd iii 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM 2010


    Th e Continuum International Publishing Group


    80 Maiden Lane, New York, NY 10038


    Th e Tower Building, 11 York Road, London SE1 7NX


    www.continuumbooks.com


    Copyright © 2010 Charles Taliaferro, Elsa J. Marty and contributors


    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored


    in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,


    electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,


    without the permission of the publishers.


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.


    ISBN: 978-1-4411-1238-5 (hardback)


    978-1-4411-1197-5 (paperback)


    Typeset by Newgen Imaging Systems Pvt Ltd, Chennai, India


    Printed in the United States of America by Sheridan Books, Inc


    CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd iv 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM Contents


    Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii


    Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix


    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi


    Chronology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv


    Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–252


    Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253


    About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286


    v


    CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd v 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM This page intentionally left blank Acknowledgments


    To our editor, Haaris Naqvi, our many thanks for his guidance and encouragement.


    Thanks also go to Tricia Little, Sarah Bruce, Kelsie Brust, Valerie Deal, Elizabeth


    Duel, Elisabeth Granquist, Michael Smeltzer, Cody Venzke, and Jacob Zillhardt for


    assistance in preparing the manuscript. We are the joint authors of all entries with the


    exception of those scholars we invited to make special contributions. We thank Pamela


    Sue Anderson, Oxford University (Feminist Philosophy of Religion, Lacan, Lyotard,


    Ricoeur); Benjamin Carter, University of Durham (Florentine Academy, Glanvill,


    History, Lessing’s Ditch, Mendelssohn); Robin Collins, Messiah College (Fine-Tuning


    Argument); Brian Davies, O. P., Fordham University (Divine Simplicity); Paul R. Draper,


    Purdue University (Bayes’ Theorem); Kevin Flannery, S. J., Gregorian University, Rome


    (Aquinas, Aristotle); Ian Gerdon, University of Notre Dame (Pelagianism, Roman


    Catholicism, Transubstantiation); John J. Giannini, Baylor University (Analogy); Paul


    J. Griffiths, Duke Divinity School (Augustine, Lying, Reading); Harriet Harris, Oxford


    University (Evangelicalism, Evangelism, Fundamentalism, Prayer); Victoria Harrison,


    University of Glascow (Holiness, von Balthasar); William Hasker, Huntington College


    (Intelligent Design, Molinism, Open Theism); Douglas Hedley, Cambridge University


    (Neoplatonism, Plotinus, Sacrifice); James N. Hoke, University of Chicago Divinity


    School (Basil, Chrysostom, Dion Chrysostom, Gregory Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa,


    Paul); Dale Jacquette, University of Bern, Switzerland (Schopenhauer); Mark Linville,


    Clayton State University (Moral Arguments for Theism); Robert MacSwain, The School


    of Theology, University of the South (Farrer, Lewis); Elizabeth Palmer, University


    of Chicago Divinity School (Luther); David L. O’Hara, Augustana College (Bishop,


    Heraclitus, Maimonides, Parmenides, Peirce, Pneuma, Providence, Ptolemaic, Reality,


    Sacrament, Satan, Separation of Church and State, Suspicion, Symbol, Syncretism,


    Thales, Transcendentalism, Zeno of Citium); Stephen R. Palmquist, Hong Kong Baptist


    University (Kant); Paul Reasoner, Bethel University (Bodhisattva, Reincarnation,


    Sincerity, Transfer of Merit); Dan N. Robinson, Oxford University (Reid); Lad Sessions,


    Washington and Lee University (Honor); Michael Swartzentruber, University of


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    CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd vii 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM Acknowledgments


    Chicago Divinity School (Hermeneutics, Liberal Theology, Schleiermacher); David


    Vessey, Grand Valley State University (Gadamer, Husserl, James, Levinas, Maritain,


    Pragmatism); Jerry Walls, University of Notre Dame, Center for Philosophy of Religion


    (Eschatology, Heaven, Hell, Purgatory, Resurrection, Salvation, Universalism); and


    Matthew Lon Weaver, Independent Scholar (H. Richard Niebuhr, Reinhold Niebuhr).


    We are especially grateful for colleagues at St. Olaf College: Calista Anderson (Duns


    Scotus, Primum Mobile), Charles Biskupic (Idol/Idolatry, St. Francis of Assisi, Irony),


    Hilary Bouxsein (Angels, Pseudo-Dionysius), Katherine Chatelaine (Anti-Theodicy),


    Samuel Dunn (Chaos Theory), Elizabeth Duel (Animals, Buddha, Dalai Lama, Heaven


    (Non-Christian Conceptions), Hell (Non-Christian Conceptions), Icons/Iconoclasm,


    Karma, Native American Traditions, Sorcery, Teilhard de Chardin, Wicca), Katie


    Duwell (Derrida, Postmodernity/Postmodernism), Bob Entenmann (Cheng Hao,


    Cheng Yi, Confucianism/Confucius, Huainanzi, Huayan School, Laozi, Mencius,


    Neo-Confucianism, Qi, Shintoism, Xiong Shili, Xuanzang, Xunzi, Zhang Dongsun,


    Zhang Zai, Zhu Xi, Zhuangzi), Jeanine Grenberg (Humility), Katherine Hagen


    (Gandhi, Vedas), Paul Hamilton (Berlin, Radhakrishnan), Eric Larson (Dominicans,


    Justice), Linnea Logas (Calvinism, Transmigration), Thomas Marti (Atomism, Time),


    Erik Olson (Averroes, Diogenes Laertius, Diogenes of Sinope, Spinoza), Anthony


    Rudd (Fichte, Schelling, Schiller), Jamie Schillinger (Falsafa, Jihad), Jason Smith (Julian


    of Norwich, Rahner, Soteriology), Alexander Sommer (Durkheim, Tillich), Jamie


    Turnbull (Kierkegaard), Sirvydas Vebra (Einstein, Socrates), Jacob Zillhardt (Hell


    (Non-Christian Conceptions)).


    Finally, we thank our families and friends for their continued support and


    encouragement.


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    CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd viii 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM Preface


    Some of the earliest recorded philosophy in the West and East concerns matters that


    are of central religious significance: the existence of God or gods, the holy, the soul,


    good and evil, the afterlife, the meaning and nature of birth, growth and maturity,


    the relationship of the individual to the family or tribe or community, sacrifice, guilt,


    mercy, and so on. And from the beginning philosophers have expressed a passionate


    commitment to understanding the meaning of the words we use in exploring such


    terrain. So, Confucius gave central importance to what he is said to have refered to as


    the “rectification of names.” And the earliest recordings we have of Socrates show


    him engaged in a vigorous inquiry into whether his fellow Athenians know what they


    are talking about when they appeal to such concepts as holiness, duty to the gods,


    justice, courage, goodness, friendship, beauty, art, and so on.


    This dictionary is in this old tradition of seeking to attain clarity and understanding


    through attention to words, names, and titles. One thing we re-discovered in the course


    of our work is the importance of community and conversation in the practice of phi-


    losophy of religion (historically and today). Sometimes scholarship can be a solitary


    affair, but while some solitude can provide some enviable time for creative reflection,


    scholarship is most vibrant when it is a shared activity. We are reminded of the story


    of the explorer Sir Henry Morton Stanley who took on his disastrous journey to the


    Belgian Congo a host of great books such as the complete collection of Shakespeare.


    But with no African conversation partners to discuss such books (and partly this was


    his fault), the bare existence of the books became a pointless burden. In fact, he had to


    leave all of them except Shakespeare which some Africans insisted he actually burn as


    they had become concerned it had become an ill totem of sorts. Without conversation


    and community, the best of books can be dull companions (unless you happen to be


    Robinson Crusoe).


    We began this dictionary in conversation about the meaning of some terms in


    contemporary philosophy of religion. It was more of an argument than a conversation,


    but it led us to join forces in the broader, constructive enterprise of working together


    ix


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