A Dictionary of Philosophy of Religion

A Dictionary of Philosophy of Religion

A Dictionary of Philosophy of Religion

317 Pages ·2010·2.14 MB ·English

A Dictionary of Philosophy of Religion

A Dictionary of Philosophy of Religion


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd i 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM This page intentionally left blank A DICTIONARY OF


PHILOSOPHY OF


RELIGION


EDITED BY


Charles Taliaferro and Elsa J. Marty


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd iii 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM 2010


Th e Continuum International Publishing Group


80 Maiden Lane, New York, NY 10038


Th e Tower Building, 11 York Road, London SE1 7NX


www.continuumbooks.com


Copyright © 2010 Charles Taliaferro, Elsa J. Marty and contributors


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored


in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,


electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,


without the permission of the publishers.


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.


ISBN: 978-1-4411-1238-5 (hardback)


978-1-4411-1197-5 (paperback)


Typeset by Newgen Imaging Systems Pvt Ltd, Chennai, India


Printed in the United States of America by Sheridan Books, Inc


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd iv 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM Contents


Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii


Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi


Chronology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv


Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–252


Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253


About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286


v


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd v 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM This page intentionally left blank Acknowledgments


To our editor, Haaris Naqvi, our many thanks for his guidance and encouragement.


Thanks also go to Tricia Little, Sarah Bruce, Kelsie Brust, Valerie Deal, Elizabeth


Duel, Elisabeth Granquist, Michael Smeltzer, Cody Venzke, and Jacob Zillhardt for


assistance in preparing the manuscript. We are the joint authors of all entries with the


exception of those scholars we invited to make special contributions. We thank Pamela


Sue Anderson, Oxford University (Feminist Philosophy of Religion, Lacan, Lyotard,


Ricoeur); Benjamin Carter, University of Durham (Florentine Academy, Glanvill,


History, Lessing’s Ditch, Mendelssohn); Robin Collins, Messiah College (Fine-Tuning


Argument); Brian Davies, O. P., Fordham University (Divine Simplicity); Paul R. Draper,


Purdue University (Bayes’ Theorem); Kevin Flannery, S. J., Gregorian University, Rome


(Aquinas, Aristotle); Ian Gerdon, University of Notre Dame (Pelagianism, Roman


Catholicism, Transubstantiation); John J. Giannini, Baylor University (Analogy); Paul


J. Griffiths, Duke Divinity School (Augustine, Lying, Reading); Harriet Harris, Oxford


University (Evangelicalism, Evangelism, Fundamentalism, Prayer); Victoria Harrison,


University of Glascow (Holiness, von Balthasar); William Hasker, Huntington College


(Intelligent Design, Molinism, Open Theism); Douglas Hedley, Cambridge University


(Neoplatonism, Plotinus, Sacrifice); James N. Hoke, University of Chicago Divinity


School (Basil, Chrysostom, Dion Chrysostom, Gregory Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa,


Paul); Dale Jacquette, University of Bern, Switzerland (Schopenhauer); Mark Linville,


Clayton State University (Moral Arguments for Theism); Robert MacSwain, The School


of Theology, University of the South (Farrer, Lewis); Elizabeth Palmer, University


of Chicago Divinity School (Luther); David L. O’Hara, Augustana College (Bishop,


Heraclitus, Maimonides, Parmenides, Peirce, Pneuma, Providence, Ptolemaic, Reality,


Sacrament, Satan, Separation of Church and State, Suspicion, Symbol, Syncretism,


Thales, Transcendentalism, Zeno of Citium); Stephen R. Palmquist, Hong Kong Baptist


University (Kant); Paul Reasoner, Bethel University (Bodhisattva, Reincarnation,


Sincerity, Transfer of Merit); Dan N. Robinson, Oxford University (Reid); Lad Sessions,


Washington and Lee University (Honor); Michael Swartzentruber, University of


vii


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd vii 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM Acknowledgments


Chicago Divinity School (Hermeneutics, Liberal Theology, Schleiermacher); David


Vessey, Grand Valley State University (Gadamer, Husserl, James, Levinas, Maritain,


Pragmatism); Jerry Walls, University of Notre Dame, Center for Philosophy of Religion


(Eschatology, Heaven, Hell, Purgatory, Resurrection, Salvation, Universalism); and


Matthew Lon Weaver, Independent Scholar (H. Richard Niebuhr, Reinhold Niebuhr).


We are especially grateful for colleagues at St. Olaf College: Calista Anderson (Duns


Scotus, Primum Mobile), Charles Biskupic (Idol/Idolatry, St. Francis of Assisi, Irony),


Hilary Bouxsein (Angels, Pseudo-Dionysius), Katherine Chatelaine (Anti-Theodicy),


Samuel Dunn (Chaos Theory), Elizabeth Duel (Animals, Buddha, Dalai Lama, Heaven


(Non-Christian Conceptions), Hell (Non-Christian Conceptions), Icons/Iconoclasm,


Karma, Native American Traditions, Sorcery, Teilhard de Chardin, Wicca), Katie


Duwell (Derrida, Postmodernity/Postmodernism), Bob Entenmann (Cheng Hao,


Cheng Yi, Confucianism/Confucius, Huainanzi, Huayan School, Laozi, Mencius,


Neo-Confucianism, Qi, Shintoism, Xiong Shili, Xuanzang, Xunzi, Zhang Dongsun,


Zhang Zai, Zhu Xi, Zhuangzi), Jeanine Grenberg (Humility), Katherine Hagen


(Gandhi, Vedas), Paul Hamilton (Berlin, Radhakrishnan), Eric Larson (Dominicans,


Justice), Linnea Logas (Calvinism, Transmigration), Thomas Marti (Atomism, Time),


Erik Olson (Averroes, Diogenes Laertius, Diogenes of Sinope, Spinoza), Anthony


Rudd (Fichte, Schelling, Schiller), Jamie Schillinger (Falsafa, Jihad), Jason Smith (Julian


of Norwich, Rahner, Soteriology), Alexander Sommer (Durkheim, Tillich), Jamie


Turnbull (Kierkegaard), Sirvydas Vebra (Einstein, Socrates), Jacob Zillhardt (Hell


(Non-Christian Conceptions)).


Finally, we thank our families and friends for their continued support and


encouragement.


viii


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd viii 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM Preface


Some of the earliest recorded philosophy in the West and East concerns matters that


are of central religious significance: the existence of God or gods, the holy, the soul,


good and evil, the afterlife, the meaning and nature of birth, growth and maturity,


the relationship of the individual to the family or tribe or community, sacrifice, guilt,


mercy, and so on. And from the beginning philosophers have expressed a passionate


commitment to understanding the meaning of the words we use in exploring such


terrain. So, Confucius gave central importance to what he is said to have refered to as


the “rectification of names.” And the earliest recordings we have of Socrates show


him engaged in a vigorous inquiry into whether his fellow Athenians know what they


are talking about when they appeal to such concepts as holiness, duty to the gods,


justice, courage, goodness, friendship, beauty, art, and so on.


This dictionary is in this old tradition of seeking to attain clarity and understanding


through attention to words, names, and titles. One thing we re-discovered in the course


of our work is the importance of community and conversation in the practice of phi-


losophy of religion (historically and today). Sometimes scholarship can be a solitary


affair, but while some solitude can provide some enviable time for creative reflection,


scholarship is most vibrant when it is a shared activity. We are reminded of the story


of the explorer Sir Henry Morton Stanley who took on his disastrous journey to the


Belgian Congo a host of great books such as the complete collection of Shakespeare.


But with no African conversation partners to discuss such books (and partly this was


his fault), the bare existence of the books became a pointless burden. In fact, he had to


leave all of them except Shakespeare which some Africans insisted he actually burn as


they had become concerned it had become an ill totem of sorts. Without conversation


and community, the best of books can be dull companions (unless you happen to be


Robinson Crusoe).


We began this dictionary in conversation about the meaning of some terms in


contemporary philosophy of religion. It was more of an argument than a conversation,


but it led us to join forces in the broader, constructive enterprise of working together


ix


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd ix 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM


A Dictionary of Philosophy of Religion


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd i 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM This page intentionally left blank A DICTIONARY OF


PHILOSOPHY OF


RELIGION


EDITED BY


Charles Taliaferro and Elsa J. Marty


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd iii 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM 2010


Th e Continuum International Publishing Group


80 Maiden Lane, New York, NY 10038


Th e Tower Building, 11 York Road, London SE1 7NX


www.continuumbooks.com


Copyright © 2010 Charles Taliaferro, Elsa J. Marty and contributors


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored


in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,


electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,


without the permission of the publishers.


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.


ISBN: 978-1-4411-1238-5 (hardback)


978-1-4411-1197-5 (paperback)


Typeset by Newgen Imaging Systems Pvt Ltd, Chennai, India


Printed in the United States of America by Sheridan Books, Inc


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd iv 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM Contents


Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii


Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi


Chronology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv


Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–252


Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253


About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286


v


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd v 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM This page intentionally left blank Acknowledgments


To our editor, Haaris Naqvi, our many thanks for his guidance and encouragement.


Thanks also go to Tricia Little, Sarah Bruce, Kelsie Brust, Valerie Deal, Elizabeth


Duel, Elisabeth Granquist, Michael Smeltzer, Cody Venzke, and Jacob Zillhardt for


assistance in preparing the manuscript. We are the joint authors of all entries with the


exception of those scholars we invited to make special contributions. We thank Pamela


Sue Anderson, Oxford University (Feminist Philosophy of Religion, Lacan, Lyotard,


Ricoeur); Benjamin Carter, University of Durham (Florentine Academy, Glanvill,


History, Lessing’s Ditch, Mendelssohn); Robin Collins, Messiah College (Fine-Tuning


Argument); Brian Davies, O. P., Fordham University (Divine Simplicity); Paul R. Draper,


Purdue University (Bayes’ Theorem); Kevin Flannery, S. J., Gregorian University, Rome


(Aquinas, Aristotle); Ian Gerdon, University of Notre Dame (Pelagianism, Roman


Catholicism, Transubstantiation); John J. Giannini, Baylor University (Analogy); Paul


J. Griffiths, Duke Divinity School (Augustine, Lying, Reading); Harriet Harris, Oxford


University (Evangelicalism, Evangelism, Fundamentalism, Prayer); Victoria Harrison,


University of Glascow (Holiness, von Balthasar); William Hasker, Huntington College


(Intelligent Design, Molinism, Open Theism); Douglas Hedley, Cambridge University


(Neoplatonism, Plotinus, Sacrifice); James N. Hoke, University of Chicago Divinity


School (Basil, Chrysostom, Dion Chrysostom, Gregory Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa,


Paul); Dale Jacquette, University of Bern, Switzerland (Schopenhauer); Mark Linville,


Clayton State University (Moral Arguments for Theism); Robert MacSwain, The School


of Theology, University of the South (Farrer, Lewis); Elizabeth Palmer, University


of Chicago Divinity School (Luther); David L. O’Hara, Augustana College (Bishop,


Heraclitus, Maimonides, Parmenides, Peirce, Pneuma, Providence, Ptolemaic, Reality,


Sacrament, Satan, Separation of Church and State, Suspicion, Symbol, Syncretism,


Thales, Transcendentalism, Zeno of Citium); Stephen R. Palmquist, Hong Kong Baptist


University (Kant); Paul Reasoner, Bethel University (Bodhisattva, Reincarnation,


Sincerity, Transfer of Merit); Dan N. Robinson, Oxford University (Reid); Lad Sessions,


Washington and Lee University (Honor); Michael Swartzentruber, University of


vii


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd vii 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM Acknowledgments


Chicago Divinity School (Hermeneutics, Liberal Theology, Schleiermacher); David


Vessey, Grand Valley State University (Gadamer, Husserl, James, Levinas, Maritain,


Pragmatism); Jerry Walls, University of Notre Dame, Center for Philosophy of Religion


(Eschatology, Heaven, Hell, Purgatory, Resurrection, Salvation, Universalism); and


Matthew Lon Weaver, Independent Scholar (H. Richard Niebuhr, Reinhold Niebuhr).


We are especially grateful for colleagues at St. Olaf College: Calista Anderson (Duns


Scotus, Primum Mobile), Charles Biskupic (Idol/Idolatry, St. Francis of Assisi, Irony),


Hilary Bouxsein (Angels, Pseudo-Dionysius), Katherine Chatelaine (Anti-Theodicy),


Samuel Dunn (Chaos Theory), Elizabeth Duel (Animals, Buddha, Dalai Lama, Heaven


(Non-Christian Conceptions), Hell (Non-Christian Conceptions), Icons/Iconoclasm,


Karma, Native American Traditions, Sorcery, Teilhard de Chardin, Wicca), Katie


Duwell (Derrida, Postmodernity/Postmodernism), Bob Entenmann (Cheng Hao,


Cheng Yi, Confucianism/Confucius, Huainanzi, Huayan School, Laozi, Mencius,


Neo-Confucianism, Qi, Shintoism, Xiong Shili, Xuanzang, Xunzi, Zhang Dongsun,


Zhang Zai, Zhu Xi, Zhuangzi), Jeanine Grenberg (Humility), Katherine Hagen


(Gandhi, Vedas), Paul Hamilton (Berlin, Radhakrishnan), Eric Larson (Dominicans,


Justice), Linnea Logas (Calvinism, Transmigration), Thomas Marti (Atomism, Time),


Erik Olson (Averroes, Diogenes Laertius, Diogenes of Sinope, Spinoza), Anthony


Rudd (Fichte, Schelling, Schiller), Jamie Schillinger (Falsafa, Jihad), Jason Smith (Julian


of Norwich, Rahner, Soteriology), Alexander Sommer (Durkheim, Tillich), Jamie


Turnbull (Kierkegaard), Sirvydas Vebra (Einstein, Socrates), Jacob Zillhardt (Hell


(Non-Christian Conceptions)).


Finally, we thank our families and friends for their continued support and


encouragement.


viii


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd viii 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM Preface


Some of the earliest recorded philosophy in the West and East concerns matters that


are of central religious significance: the existence of God or gods, the holy, the soul,


good and evil, the afterlife, the meaning and nature of birth, growth and maturity,


the relationship of the individual to the family or tribe or community, sacrifice, guilt,


mercy, and so on. And from the beginning philosophers have expressed a passionate


commitment to understanding the meaning of the words we use in exploring such


terrain. So, Confucius gave central importance to what he is said to have refered to as


the “rectification of names.” And the earliest recordings we have of Socrates show


him engaged in a vigorous inquiry into whether his fellow Athenians know what they


are talking about when they appeal to such concepts as holiness, duty to the gods,


justice, courage, goodness, friendship, beauty, art, and so on.


This dictionary is in this old tradition of seeking to attain clarity and understanding


through attention to words, names, and titles. One thing we re-discovered in the course


of our work is the importance of community and conversation in the practice of phi-


losophy of religion (historically and today). Sometimes scholarship can be a solitary


affair, but while some solitude can provide some enviable time for creative reflection,


scholarship is most vibrant when it is a shared activity. We are reminded of the story


of the explorer Sir Henry Morton Stanley who took on his disastrous journey to the


Belgian Congo a host of great books such as the complete collection of Shakespeare.


But with no African conversation partners to discuss such books (and partly this was


his fault), the bare existence of the books became a pointless burden. In fact, he had to


leave all of them except Shakespeare which some Africans insisted he actually burn as


they had become concerned it had become an ill totem of sorts. Without conversation


and community, the best of books can be dull companions (unless you happen to be


Robinson Crusoe).


We began this dictionary in conversation about the meaning of some terms in


contemporary philosophy of religion. It was more of an argument than a conversation,


but it led us to join forces in the broader, constructive enterprise of working together


ix


CTaliaferro_FM_Final.indd ix 6/17/2010 9:32:51 AM


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