A Companion Roman Religion - Spiritual Minds

562 Pages · 2008 · 5.22 MB · English

  • A Companion Roman Religion - Spiritual Minds

    ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page i



    ROMAN RELIGION ACTA01  27/04/2007  09:22 AM  Page ii


    This series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of periods of ancient history, genres of classical lit-

    erature, and the most important themes in ancient culture. Each volume comprises between twenty-five and

    forty concise essays written by individual scholars within their area of specialization. The essays are written in a

    clear, provocative, and lively manner, designed for an international audience of scholars, students, and general


    Ancient History


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    Edited by Nathan Rosenstein and  Edited by Daniel C. Snell

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    A Companion to the Hellenistic World

    A Companion to the Roman Empire Edited by Andrew Erskine

    Edited by David S. Potter

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    A Companion to Ancient History A Companion to Late Antiquity

    Edited by Andrew Erskine Edited by Philip Rousseau

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    Edited by Kurt A. Raaflaub and Hans van Wees Edited by Elizabeth James

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    Edited by Miriam Griffin

    Literature and Culture


    A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography A Companion to Roman Rhetoric

    Edited by John Marincola Edited by William Dominik and Jon Hall

    A Companion to Catullus A Companion to Greek Rhetoric

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    A Companion to Roman Religion A Companion to Ancient Epic

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    A Companion to the Classical Tradition A Companion to Latin Literature

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    Edited by Egbert Bakker Edited by N. Gregson Davis ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page iii




    Edited by

    Jörg Rüpke ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page iv

    © 2007 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd

    blackwell publishing

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    9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK

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    The right of Jörg Rüpke to be identified as the Author of the Editorial Material

    in this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs,

    and Patents Act 1988.

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a

    retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

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    Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.

    First published 2007 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd

    1 2007

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    A companion to Roman religion / edited by Jörg Rüpke.

    p. cm. — (Blackwell companions to the ancient world)

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    ISBN 978-1-4051-2943-5 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Rome—Religion.

    I. Rüpke, Jörg.

    BL803.C66 2007



    A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.

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    filiae carissimae ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page vii


    List of Figures x

    List of Maps xiii

    Notes on Contributors xiv

    Acknowledgments xix

    Abbreviations xxi

    Maps xxviii

    1 Roman Religion – Religions of Rome 1

    Jörg Rüpke

    2 Approaching Roman Religion: The Case for

    Wissenschaftsgeschichte 10

    C. Robert Phillips, III

    Part I Changes 29

    3 The Religion of Archaic Rome 31

    Christopher Smith

    4 Pre-Roman Italy, Before and Under the Romans 43

    Olivier de Cazanove

    5 Urban Religion in the Middle and Late Republic 58

    Eric Orlin

    6 Continuity and Change: Religion in the Augustan Semi-Century 71

    Karl Galinsky ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page viii

    viii Contents

    7 Religions and the Integration of Cities in the Empire in the

    Second Century ad: The Creation of a Common Religious

    Language 83

    William Van Andringa

    8 Old Religions Transformed: Religions and Religious Policy

    from Decius to Constantine 96

    Hartmut Leppin

    9 Religious Koine and Religious Dissent in the Fourth Century 109

    Michele Renee Salzman

    Part II Media 127

    10 The History of Roman Religion in Roman Historiography

    and Epic 129

    Denis Feeney

    11 Religion and Roman Coins 143

    Jonathan Williams

    12 Reliefs, Public and Private 164

    Katja Moede

    13 Inscriptions as Sources of Knowledge for Religions and

    Cults in the Roman World of Imperial Times 176

    Rudolf Haensch

    14 Religion in the House 188

    Annemarie Kaufmann-Heinimann

    Part III Symbols and Practices 203

    15 Roman Cult Sites: A Pragmatic Approach 205

    Ulrike Egelhaaf-Gaiser

    16 Complex Rituals: Games and Processions in Republican

    Rome 222

    Frank Bernstein

    17 Performing the Sacred: Prayers and Hymns 235

    Frances Hickson Hahn

    18 Music and Dance: Forms of Representation in Pictorial and

    Written Sources 249

    Friederike Fless and Katja Moede

    19 Sacrifices for Gods and Ancestors 263

    John Scheid ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page ix

    Contents ix

    Part IV Actors and Actions 273

    20 Religious Actors in Daily Life: Practices and Related Beliefs 275

    Nicole Belayche

    21 Republican Nobiles: Controlling the Res Publica 292

    Veit Rosenberger

    22 Emperors: Caring for the Empire and Their Successors 304

    Peter Herz

    23 Urban Elites in the Roman East: Enhancing Regional

    Positions and Social Superiority 317

    Athanasios Rizakis

    24 Living on Religion: Professionals and Personnel 331

    Marietta Horster

    Part V Different Religious Identities 343

    25 Roman Diaspora Judaism 345

    Jack N. Lightstone

    26 Creating One’s Own Religion: Intellectual Choices 378

    Attilio Mastrocinque

    27 Institutionalized Religious Options: Mithraism 392

    Richard Gordon

    28 The Romanness of Roman Christianity 406

    Stefan Heid

    Part VI Roman Religion Outside and Seen from Outside 427

    29 Exporting Roman Religion 429

    Clifford Ando

    30 Religion in the Roman East 446

    Ted Kaizer

    31 Roman Religion in the Vision of Tertullian 457

    Cecilia Ames

    Bibliography 472

    General Index 511

    Index of Personal Names 526

    Index of Places 537 ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:47PM  Page x


    4.1 Ancient Italy.  48

    11.1 Roman silver didrachm, c. 275 bc, showing a wreathed head of

    Apollo and horse.  143

    11.2 Roman silver denarius, c. 212 bc, with Roma and Dioscuri. 144

    11.3 Etruscan cast bronze coin, third century bc, with priestly

    accoutrements. 145

    11.4 Roman gold stater, c. 220 bc, showing oath-taking scene. 145

    11.5 Seleucid silver tetradrachm, 129–125 bc, depicting the

    altar of Sandan. 145

    11.6 Roman silver denarius, c. 135 bc, showing the Columna

    Minucia. 146

    11.7 Roman silver denarius, 42 bc, showing Octavian on horseback

    holding a lituus. 147

    11.8 Roman gold aureus, ad 69–79, depicting the temple of Vesta. 148

    11.9 Ephesian bronze coin, ad 138–61, showing the temple of Artemis. 149

    11.10 Silver shekel, ad 132–5, depicting the destroyed Jerusalem

    Temple. 149

    11.11 Bronze coin of Heliopolis, ad 193–211, with an aerial view of

    the temple. 149

    11.12 Bronze coin of Ephesus, ad 218–22, showing the city’s four

    neocoric temples. 150

    11.13 Gold aureus of Augustus, c. 16 bc, showing the clipeus

    virtutis and sacred laurel trees. 151

    11.14 Gold coin made for Sulla, c. 84 bc, with his priestly symbols. 151

    11.15 Silver denarius, 44 bc, showing the bust of Julius Caesar with

    priestly symbols. 151

    11.16 Ancient British silver coin of Verica, early first century ad,

    showing a naked figure holding a lituus. 152

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