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A Companion Roman Religion - Spiritual Minds

562 Pages · 2008 · 5.22 MB · English

  • A Companion Roman Religion - Spiritual Minds

    ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page i


    A COMPANION


    TO


    ROMAN RELIGION ACTA01  27/04/2007  09:22 AM  Page ii


    BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO THE ANCIENT WORLD


    This series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of periods of ancient history, genres of classical lit-


    erature, and the most important themes in ancient culture. Each volume comprises between twenty-five and


    forty concise essays written by individual scholars within their area of specialization. The essays are written in a


    clear, provocative, and lively manner, designed for an international audience of scholars, students, and general


    readers.


    Ancient History


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    Edited by Egbert Bakker Edited by N. Gregson Davis ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page iii


    A  COMPANION


    TO


    ROMAN  RELIGION


    Edited by


    Jörg Rüpke ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page iv


    © 2007 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd


    blackwell publishing


    350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA


    9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK


    550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia


    The right of Jörg Rüpke to be identified as the Author of the Editorial Material


    in this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs,


    and Patents Act 1988.


    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a


    retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,


    photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright,


    Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.


    First published 2007 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd


    1 2007


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    A companion to Roman religion / edited by Jörg Rüpke.


    p. cm. — (Blackwell companions to the ancient world)


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 978-1-4051-2943-5 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Rome—Religion.


    I. Rüpke, Jörg.


    BL803.C66 2007


    292.07—dc22


    2006025010


    A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.


    Set in 10/12pt Galliard


    by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong


    Printed and bound in Singapore


    by Markono Print Pte Ltd


    The publisher’s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable


    forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free


    and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that


    the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental


    accreditation standards.


    For further information on


    Blackwell Publishing, visit our website:


    www.blackwellpublishing.com ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page v


    Irene


    filiae carissimae ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page vii


    Contents


    List of Figures x


    List of Maps xiii


    Notes on Contributors xiv


    Acknowledgments xix


    Abbreviations xxi


    Maps xxviii


    1 Roman Religion – Religions of Rome 1


    Jörg Rüpke


    2 Approaching Roman Religion: The Case for


    Wissenschaftsgeschichte 10


    C. Robert Phillips, III


    Part I Changes 29


    3 The Religion of Archaic Rome 31


    Christopher Smith


    4 Pre-Roman Italy, Before and Under the Romans 43


    Olivier de Cazanove


    5 Urban Religion in the Middle and Late Republic 58


    Eric Orlin


    6 Continuity and Change: Religion in the Augustan Semi-Century 71


    Karl Galinsky ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page viii


    viii Contents


    7 Religions and the Integration of Cities in the Empire in the


    Second Century ad: The Creation of a Common Religious


    Language 83


    William Van Andringa


    8 Old Religions Transformed: Religions and Religious Policy


    from Decius to Constantine 96


    Hartmut Leppin


    9 Religious Koine and Religious Dissent in the Fourth Century 109


    Michele Renee Salzman


    Part II Media 127


    10 The History of Roman Religion in Roman Historiography


    and Epic 129


    Denis Feeney


    11 Religion and Roman Coins 143


    Jonathan Williams


    12 Reliefs, Public and Private 164


    Katja Moede


    13 Inscriptions as Sources of Knowledge for Religions and


    Cults in the Roman World of Imperial Times 176


    Rudolf Haensch


    14 Religion in the House 188


    Annemarie Kaufmann-Heinimann


    Part III Symbols and Practices 203


    15 Roman Cult Sites: A Pragmatic Approach 205


    Ulrike Egelhaaf-Gaiser


    16 Complex Rituals: Games and Processions in Republican


    Rome 222


    Frank Bernstein


    17 Performing the Sacred: Prayers and Hymns 235


    Frances Hickson Hahn


    18 Music and Dance: Forms of Representation in Pictorial and


    Written Sources 249


    Friederike Fless and Katja Moede


    19 Sacrifices for Gods and Ancestors 263


    John Scheid ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:46PM  Page ix


    Contents ix


    Part IV Actors and Actions 273


    20 Religious Actors in Daily Life: Practices and Related Beliefs 275


    Nicole Belayche


    21 Republican Nobiles: Controlling the Res Publica 292


    Veit Rosenberger


    22 Emperors: Caring for the Empire and Their Successors 304


    Peter Herz


    23 Urban Elites in the Roman East: Enhancing Regional


    Positions and Social Superiority 317


    Athanasios Rizakis


    24 Living on Religion: Professionals and Personnel 331


    Marietta Horster


    Part V Different Religious Identities 343


    25 Roman Diaspora Judaism 345


    Jack N. Lightstone


    26 Creating One’s Own Religion: Intellectual Choices 378


    Attilio Mastrocinque


    27 Institutionalized Religious Options: Mithraism 392


    Richard Gordon


    28 The Romanness of Roman Christianity 406


    Stefan Heid


    Part VI Roman Religion Outside and Seen from Outside 427


    29 Exporting Roman Religion 429


    Clifford Ando


    30 Religion in the Roman East 446


    Ted Kaizer


    31 Roman Religion in the Vision of Tertullian 457


    Cecilia Ames


    Bibliography 472


    General Index 511


    Index of Personal Names 526


    Index of Places 537 ACTA01  24/04/2007  04:47PM  Page x


    Figures


    4.1 Ancient Italy.  48


    11.1 Roman silver didrachm, c. 275 bc, showing a wreathed head of


    Apollo and horse.  143


    11.2 Roman silver denarius, c. 212 bc, with Roma and Dioscuri. 144


    11.3 Etruscan cast bronze coin, third century bc, with priestly


    accoutrements. 145


    11.4 Roman gold stater, c. 220 bc, showing oath-taking scene. 145


    11.5 Seleucid silver tetradrachm, 129–125 bc, depicting the


    altar of Sandan. 145


    11.6 Roman silver denarius, c. 135 bc, showing the Columna


    Minucia. 146


    11.7 Roman silver denarius, 42 bc, showing Octavian on horseback


    holding a lituus. 147


    11.8 Roman gold aureus, ad 69–79, depicting the temple of Vesta. 148


    11.9 Ephesian bronze coin, ad 138–61, showing the temple of Artemis. 149


    11.10 Silver shekel, ad 132–5, depicting the destroyed Jerusalem


    Temple. 149


    11.11 Bronze coin of Heliopolis, ad 193–211, with an aerial view of


    the temple. 149


    11.12 Bronze coin of Ephesus, ad 218–22, showing the city’s four


    neocoric temples. 150


    11.13 Gold aureus of Augustus, c. 16 bc, showing the clipeus


    virtutis and sacred laurel trees. 151


    11.14 Gold coin made for Sulla, c. 84 bc, with his priestly symbols. 151


    11.15 Silver denarius, 44 bc, showing the bust of Julius Caesar with


    priestly symbols. 151


    11.16 Ancient British silver coin of Verica, early first century ad,


    showing a naked figure holding a lituus. 152


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