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A Brief History of Saudi Arabia

385 Pages · 2010 · 10.58 MB · English

  • A Brief History of Saudi Arabia

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    JAmes WynBrAndt


    Foreword by Fawaz A. Gerges A Brief History of Saudi Arabia, Second Edition


    Text copyright © 2010, 2004 by James Wynbrandt; foreword by Fawaz A. Gerges


    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form


    or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by


    any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the


    publisher. For information contact:


    Facts On File


    An imprint of Infobase Publishing


    132 West 31st Street


    New York NY 10001


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Wynbrandt, James.


    A brief history of Saudi Arabia / James Wynbrandt; foreword by Fawaz A. Gerges. —


    2nd ed.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 978-0-8160-7876-9 (hardcover : alk. paper)


    1. Saudi Arabia—History. I. Title.


    DS204.25.W96 2010


    953.8—dc22 2010005466


    Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quan-


    tities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our


    Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755.


    You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com


    Excerpts included herewith have been reprinted by permission of the copyright hold-


    ers; the author has made every effort to contact copyright holders. The publishers will


    be glad to rectify, in future editions, any errors or omissions brought to their notice.


    Text design by Joan M. McEvoy


    Composition by Mary Susan Ryan-Flynn


    Maps and charts by Dale Williams


    Cover printed by Art Print, Taylor, Pa.


    Book printed and bound by Maple-Vail Book Manufacturing Group, York, Pa.


    Date printed: June 2010


    Printed in the United States of America


    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


    This book is printed on acid-free paper. Contents


    List of Illustrations vii


    List of Maps viii


    List of Charts ix


    Foreword x


    Acknowledgments xv


    Note on Photos xvi


    Note on Arabic Transliteration and Spelling xvii


    Introduction xviii


    1 Arabia: The Land and Its Pre-Islamic History 1


    2 The Birth of Islam (571–632) 24


    3 The Islamic Empire and Arabia (632–1258) 47


    4 The Golden Age of Islam (ca. 750–1258) 73


    5 The Mamluks, the Ottomans, and the Wahhabi–Al Saud


    Alliance (1258–1745) 93


    6 The First Saudi State (1745–1818) 117


    7 Roots of Modern Arabia (1818–1891) 143


    8 Unity and Independence (1891–1932) 164


    9 Birth of a Kingdom (1932–1953) 187


    10 A Path to World Power (1953–1973) 208


    11 Oil and Arms (1973–1990) 233


    12 The Gulf Crisis and Its Aftermath (1990–2001) 254


    13 The Challenges Ahead 273 Appendixes


    1 Glossary 317


    2 Basic Facts about Saudi Arabia 321


    3 Chronology 325


    4 Bibliography 335


    5 Suggested Reading 342


    Index 347 List of illustrations


    Mountains of Asir 3


    Tuwayq Escarpment 4


    Desert 6


    Petroglyphs 8


    Bedouin with camels 17


    The Kaaba 27


    Medina 40


    Illuminated manuscript page: The Battle of Badr 43


    Tomb of the Prophet, Medina 48


    Prophet’s Mosque, Medina 51


    Dome of the Rock 55


    Umayyad Mosque 56


    Astrolabe 81


    Illuminated manuscript page: Men producing lead 83


    Calligraphy in the shape of a hawk 85


    Historical map: The Red Sea 95


    Old quay at port of Jeddah 96


    Gates of Mecca at Jeddah 97


    Remnants of Portuguese fortress 99


    Springs at oasis in Hufuf 111


    Illuminated manuscript page: Religious procession 118


    Walled oasis town (Qasim) 124


    Diriya skyline 126


    Walls and turrets of Hufuf 130


    Historical map: Arabia in 18th century 133


    Ruins of Diriya 146


    Riyadh, inside city walls 148


    Mecca in the late 19th century 155


    Ibn Saud, 1910 165


    Masmak fortress 168


    The Ikhwan 171


    Hijaz Railway, abandoned station 173


    Ibn Saud with Sir Percy Cox 176


    Oil well 191


    Ibn Saud with Casoc official at Ras Tanura 192


    vii Tanker with first shipment of Saudi oil 193


    Ibn Saud with President Franklin D. Roosevelt 197


    Camel and bulldozer 201


    Pilgrims with car in 1931 202


    Riyadh and city walls from outside 205


    Ibn Saud with young sons 207


    King Saud 210


    Nasser and Prince Faisal in Mecca 215


    President Kennedy and Prince Faisal 223


    Refinery at Jubail 234


    Generating plant on the coast 235


    King Khalid with Prince Abdullah 237


    King Fahd 250


    President George H. W. Bush and King Fahd in Riyadh 258


    Afghan mujahideen consult with U.S. Marines in eastern


    Saudi Arabia 259


    The Consultative Council 261


    Crown Prince Abdullah 276


    Leaders at the Arab League Summit 285


    Men in traditional dress with swords at heritage festival 295


    Hajj crowd 303


    Saudi woman browsing for lingerie in Riyadh 306


    Saudi man casting ballot during municipal elections 313


    List of Maps


    Arabian Peninsula 2


    Ancient Civilizations of Arabia 9


    Trade Routes in Arabia 21


    Islam’s Reach at the Time of Muhammad’s Death 45


    Expansion of the Islamic Empire 61


    Ottoman Control in Arabia 102


    Central Arabia 104


    Arabia’s Tribes and Their Territories 105


    Ibn Saud’s Campaigns of Conquest, 1902–1932 181


    Provinces of Saudi Arabia 263


    Saudi Arabia and the Middle East 274


    viii List of charts


    Genealogy of Muhammad 29


    Genealogy of the Alid Line 63


    Genealogy of the First Saudi State 107


    Genealogy of the Uyaina Rulers 109


    Genealogy of the House of Saud 149


    ix


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