A Brief History of Saudi Arabia

385 Pages · 2010 · 10.58 MB · English

  • A Brief History of Saudi Arabia

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    JAmes WynBrAndt

    Foreword by Fawaz A. Gerges A Brief History of Saudi Arabia, Second Edition

    Text copyright © 2010, 2004 by James Wynbrandt; foreword by Fawaz A. Gerges

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form

    or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by

    any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the

    publisher. For information contact:

    Facts On File

    An imprint of Infobase Publishing

    132 West 31st Street

    New York NY 10001

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Wynbrandt, James.

    A brief history of Saudi Arabia / James Wynbrandt; foreword by Fawaz A. Gerges. —

    2nd ed.

    p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    ISBN 978-0-8160-7876-9 (hardcover : alk. paper)

    1. Saudi Arabia—History. I. Title.

    DS204.25.W96 2010

    953.8—dc22 2010005466

    Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quan-

    tities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our

    Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755.

    You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com

    Excerpts included herewith have been reprinted by permission of the copyright hold-

    ers; the author has made every effort to contact copyright holders. The publishers will

    be glad to rectify, in future editions, any errors or omissions brought to their notice.

    Text design by Joan M. McEvoy

    Composition by Mary Susan Ryan-Flynn

    Maps and charts by Dale Williams

    Cover printed by Art Print, Taylor, Pa.

    Book printed and bound by Maple-Vail Book Manufacturing Group, York, Pa.

    Date printed: June 2010

    Printed in the United States of America

    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    This book is printed on acid-free paper. Contents

    List of Illustrations vii

    List of Maps viii

    List of Charts ix

    Foreword x

    Acknowledgments xv

    Note on Photos xvi

    Note on Arabic Transliteration and Spelling xvii

    Introduction xviii

    1 Arabia: The Land and Its Pre-Islamic History 1

    2 The Birth of Islam (571–632) 24

    3 The Islamic Empire and Arabia (632–1258) 47

    4 The Golden Age of Islam (ca. 750–1258) 73

    5 The Mamluks, the Ottomans, and the Wahhabi–Al Saud

    Alliance (1258–1745) 93

    6 The First Saudi State (1745–1818) 117

    7 Roots of Modern Arabia (1818–1891) 143

    8 Unity and Independence (1891–1932) 164

    9 Birth of a Kingdom (1932–1953) 187

    10 A Path to World Power (1953–1973) 208

    11 Oil and Arms (1973–1990) 233

    12 The Gulf Crisis and Its Aftermath (1990–2001) 254

    13 The Challenges Ahead 273 Appendixes

    1 Glossary 317

    2 Basic Facts about Saudi Arabia 321

    3 Chronology 325

    4 Bibliography 335

    5 Suggested Reading 342

    Index 347 List of illustrations

    Mountains of Asir 3

    Tuwayq Escarpment 4

    Desert 6

    Petroglyphs 8

    Bedouin with camels 17

    The Kaaba 27

    Medina 40

    Illuminated manuscript page: The Battle of Badr 43

    Tomb of the Prophet, Medina 48

    Prophet’s Mosque, Medina 51

    Dome of the Rock 55

    Umayyad Mosque 56

    Astrolabe 81

    Illuminated manuscript page: Men producing lead 83

    Calligraphy in the shape of a hawk 85

    Historical map: The Red Sea 95

    Old quay at port of Jeddah 96

    Gates of Mecca at Jeddah 97

    Remnants of Portuguese fortress 99

    Springs at oasis in Hufuf 111

    Illuminated manuscript page: Religious procession 118

    Walled oasis town (Qasim) 124

    Diriya skyline 126

    Walls and turrets of Hufuf 130

    Historical map: Arabia in 18th century 133

    Ruins of Diriya 146

    Riyadh, inside city walls 148

    Mecca in the late 19th century 155

    Ibn Saud, 1910 165

    Masmak fortress 168

    The Ikhwan 171

    Hijaz Railway, abandoned station 173

    Ibn Saud with Sir Percy Cox 176

    Oil well 191

    Ibn Saud with Casoc official at Ras Tanura 192

    vii Tanker with first shipment of Saudi oil 193

    Ibn Saud with President Franklin D. Roosevelt 197

    Camel and bulldozer 201

    Pilgrims with car in 1931 202

    Riyadh and city walls from outside 205

    Ibn Saud with young sons 207

    King Saud 210

    Nasser and Prince Faisal in Mecca 215

    President Kennedy and Prince Faisal 223

    Refinery at Jubail 234

    Generating plant on the coast 235

    King Khalid with Prince Abdullah 237

    King Fahd 250

    President George H. W. Bush and King Fahd in Riyadh 258

    Afghan mujahideen consult with U.S. Marines in eastern

    Saudi Arabia 259

    The Consultative Council 261

    Crown Prince Abdullah 276

    Leaders at the Arab League Summit 285

    Men in traditional dress with swords at heritage festival 295

    Hajj crowd 303

    Saudi woman browsing for lingerie in Riyadh 306

    Saudi man casting ballot during municipal elections 313

    List of Maps

    Arabian Peninsula 2

    Ancient Civilizations of Arabia 9

    Trade Routes in Arabia 21

    Islam’s Reach at the Time of Muhammad’s Death 45

    Expansion of the Islamic Empire 61

    Ottoman Control in Arabia 102

    Central Arabia 104

    Arabia’s Tribes and Their Territories 105

    Ibn Saud’s Campaigns of Conquest, 1902–1932 181

    Provinces of Saudi Arabia 263

    Saudi Arabia and the Middle East 274

    viii List of charts

    Genealogy of Muhammad 29

    Genealogy of the Alid Line 63

    Genealogy of the First Saudi State 107

    Genealogy of the Uyaina Rulers 109

    Genealogy of the House of Saud 149


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